UX London Collaborative Research Workshop

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1. UX LONDON Research Together! 1 2. Hello! 2 3. I have a question 3 4. Do you enjoy being right? 4 5. You are correct! 5 6. YESSS! 6 7. p0wned! 7 8. No. 8 9. ? 9 10. >? ! 10 11. Flickr/Chris Voll 11 12. Ego! 12 13. 13 14. 14 15. Where are you? 15 16. What Were Doing Today Research & Collaboration A Framework for Research Questions & Activities Biases & Objections Understanding the Organization Break User Research Analysis Models and Reports Getting Buy-In at Every Stage Wrap Up 16 17. Research & Collaboration 17 18. 18 19. 19 20. 20 21. 21 22. 22 23. 23 24. People 24 25. 25 26. Collaboration! 26 27. Collaboration! 27 28. 28 29. True Collaboration 29 30. Chris Noessel Collaboration requires behavior change 30 31. For Effective Collaboration Have a plan Provide a rationale Define roles and responsibility Set expectations Communicate progress Reflect on performance 31 32. The 4 Virtues of Collaboration Clarity & definition Accountability & ownership Awareness & respect Openness & honesty 32 33. Embrace Conict 33 34. Why research? 34 35. Real World Context Organization Users 35 36. Things you dont control Goals, assumptions & resources Needs & behaviors 36 37. Personal View Personal View Personal View 37 38. Shared Reality 38 39. Shared Understanding 39 40. A design project is a series of decisions. 40 41. What is What ought to be 41 42. Research leads to evidence-based decisions. 42 43. Data (alone) doesnt change minds. 43 44. Objections! 44 45. 6We dont have the time. 45 46. $We dont have the money. 46 47. $We dont have the expertise. 47 48. We have a guy. 48 49. 0 25 50 75 100 April May June July Well just A/B test. We have analytics. 49 50. !Lets just make a prototype. 50 51. Steve Jobs 51 52. Any others? 52 53. Everyone wants better products, faster. 53 54. No one wants to read a report. 54 55. Research Advantages 55 56. Faster decisions 56 57. CLower risk 57 58. Saves money $58 59. JIncreased value 59 60. Continuing returns C 60 61. Everyone is more effective and efcient 61 62. 62 63. How to Do Research 63 64. Dogma 64 65. Design-Led Research-Led Expert Mindset Participatory Mindset Users seen as subjects Users seen as partners Design-led with expert mindset Design-led with participatory mindset Research-led with expert mindset Research-led with participatory mindset Dubberly Design Ofce 65 66. Goal Driven Skeptical Mindset Increase chance of success Reduce risk Willing to question the value of any approach 66 67. One Simple Process 67 68. Form Questions Analyze Data Gather Data 68 69. Form Questions Analyze DataThink Critically 69 70. Form Questions Analyze DataObserve 70 71. Form Questions Analyze DataInterview 71 72. Form Questions Analyze DataRead 72 73. Form Questions Analyze Data Read Experiment Interview Observe Think 73 74. Your Process Success! !!!Insights 74 75. You need a plan! 75 76. 76 77. Form Questions Analyze Data Gather Data 77 78. Questions determine results. 78 79. Questions give research meaning. 79 80. Research high-priority questions. 80 81. Good Questions Specic Actionable Practical 81 82. A Bad Question How do we get Millennials to like us? 82 83. Better Question How do recent college graduates living in cities decide what to have for dinner? 83 84. A Bad Question What do people do around here all day? 84 85. A Better Question How do editors and designers work together? 85 86. The Best Question The unknown that carries the most risk. 86 87. Project Risks Target customers dont value product Customers need something else Business model doesnt support it Organization cant produce it Someone else is doing it better 87 88. Practice! !88 89. Practice Exercise: Writing questions Time:10 minutes I will give you a project scenario Discuss potential research questions Write down the 35 highest priority 89 90. What research questions might serve this project? A e-commerce startup wants to create an app to help people give gifts. 90 91. Time is up! 6 91 92. Lets talk about your questions. 92 93. How to answer those questions 93 94. Form Questions Analyze Data Gather Data 94 95. Research activities are simply ways to answer questions. 95 96. Questions About Users ProductOrg Competition InterviewsInterviews Usability Testing A/B Testing Contextual Inquiry Literature Review SWOT Analysis Brand Audit Usability Testing Competitive Analysis Heuristic Analysis Descriptive Evaluative Evaluative Evaluative Analytic Analytic Generative Descriptive 96 97. Research Activity Topic Purpose Time Money 97 98. Phone Interviews What do we need to know about? What kind of decision will it inform? How long do we have? What is our budget? In-Person Interviews Contextual Inquiry Usability Testing Competitive Analysis 98 99. Why not just make a prototype? 99 100. 100 101. If we only test bottle openers, we may never realize customers prefer screw-top bottles. Victor Lombardi, Why We Fail 101 102. There is no one right method or activity. 102 103. How to get the most out of any method Clarify goals Enumerate assumptions Identify questions Prioritize questions Work collaboratively Present strategically 103 104. Dont focus on the method 104 105. Tell the story 105 106. Critical Thinking 106 107. Critical Thinking Disciplined Self-correcting Clear Logical 107 108. Uncritical Thinking I hate yellow, so a yellow website wont succeed. 108 109. Critical Thinking I hate yellow, but based on the evidence, it might work for our audience. 109 110. Uncritical Thinking The information on this website is too dumbed- down for me. 110 111. Critical Thinking Our target audience needs clear, simple information. 111 112. Critical Thinking I dont know. 112 113. Bias 113 114. Bias: Something that causes an inuence or prejudice 114 115. Conrmation Bias: You selectively weight the information that conrms what you already believe. 115 116. Sampling Bias: Your sample of research subjects isnt sufciently representative. 116 117. Interviewer Bias: You insert your opinion into interviews. 117 118. Social Desirability Bias People dont say the true things that they worry will make them look bad. 118 119. Hawthorne Effect Observation changes the behavior being observed. 119 120. Ease Clear Display Related Experience Primed Idea Good Mood Feels True Feels Familiar Feels Good Feels Effortless Daniel Kahneman 120 121. Feeling condent? Its not a good sign. 121 122. You might have a bad case of Dunning-Kruger. 122 123. Research Topics 123 124. Organizational Research 124 125. Real World Context Organization Users 125 126. All organizations have baggage 126 127. Organizational research helps you understand Requirements Politics Workow Capabilities Goodwill 127 128. Requirements What are the top business priorities for this project/ product? 128 129. Politics What does success mean for our individual roles? 129 130. Workow (How) do we have to change how we work together to be successful? 130 131. Capabilities What are the strengths and weaknesses of our team? 131 132. Capabilities Where is the internal expertise? 132 133. Goodwill How might product decisions make someones job easier (or harder)? 133 134. Stakeholders 134 135. How to extract knowledge from these people? 135 136. Get them alone. 136 137. Butter them up. 137 138. Basic Stakeholder Questions What is your title? How long have you been in this role? What are your essential duties and responsibilities? What does a typical day look like? Who are the people you work most closely with? How is that going? 138 139. Project Specic Questions What does success mean from your perspective? What will have changed for the better once this project is complete? Do you have any concerns about this project? What do you think the greatest challenges to success are? Internal and external? 139 140. Stakeholder Power Moves Why are you asking me this? I dont understand that question. It doesnt make any sense. I dont feel comfortable talking to you about that. No one pays attention to anything I have to say, so I dont know why I should bother talking to you. How much more time is this going to take? 140 141. Practice! !141 142. Practice Exercise: Stakeholder interviews Time:10 minutes x 2 Find a partner. This is a pair exercise. We will show you a set of questions Interview your partner Really listen No need to take notes 142 143. Stakeholder Questions What is your title? How long have you had this job? What are your essential duties and responsibilities? What is a typical day like? Who are the people you work most closely with? How is that going? What do you think the greatest challenges to your success are? Internal and external? 143 144. Switch! 144 145. Stakeholder Questions What is your title? How long have you had this job? What are your essential duties and responsibilities? What is a typical day like? Who are the people you work most closely with? How is that going? What do you think the greatest challenges to your success are? Internal and external? 145 146. Time is up! 6 146 147. What did you learn? 147 148. Empathy 148 149. In summary A shared reality is as important as new facts. Research is a simple process. Be goal-oriented, not dogmatic. Questions threaten authority. Facts alone wont convince those who feel threatened. Use what you learn to t your ndings into the project story. 149 150. User Research 150 151. Real World Context UsersOrganization 151 152. Photo: Flickr/theloushe Ethnography 152 153. How to do bad user research: Ask people what they want. 153 154. How to do bad user research: Ask people what they like. 154 155. Never ask users what they want or like. 155 156. The Four Ds of Design Ethnography 156 157. Deep Dive Daily Life Data Analysis Drama 157 158. ...true ethnography reveals not just what people say they do, but what they actually do. PARC 158 159. 159 160. Photo: Flickr/lintmachine 160 161. The Art of The Interview 161 162. Interviewing is not talking. 162 163. Interviewing is listening. 163 164. Good Interviewers 1.Know Your Question 2.Warm Up 3.Shut Up 164 165. Interview Structure 1 Intro 2 Body 3 Conclusion 165 166. Introduction: Smile Express gratitude Describe the process Ask to record Warm up questions Body: Ask open-ended questions Probe for more Allow silence Use questions as checklist Conclusion: Transition to wrap-up Ask if there is anything else Thank for time Interview Structure 166 167. Introduction: Smile Express gratitude Describe the process Ask to record Warm up questions Body: Ask open-ended questions Probe for more Allow silence Use questions as checklist Conclusion: Transition to wrap-up Ask if there is anything else Thank for time Interview Structure 167 168. Introduction: Smile Express gratitude Describe the process Ask to record Warm up questions Body: Ask open-ended questions Probe for more Allow silence Use questions as checklist Conclusion: Transition to wrap-up Ask if there is anything else Thank for time Interview Structure 168 169. You are the host You are the student 169 170. Out of your comfort zone, and into theirs. 170 171. Interview Checklist Create a welcoming atmosphere. Always listen more than you speak. Take responsibility to accurately convey the thoughts and behaviors of the people you are studying. Start each interview with a general description of the goal, but be careful of focusing responses too narrowly. Avoid leading questions and closed yes/no questions. Ask follow-up questions. Prepare an outline of your interview questions in advance, but dont be afraid to stray from it. Also note the exact phrases and vocabulary. 171 172. Goals Priorities Tasks Motivators Barriers Habits Relationships Tools Environment Make a note of 172 173. Roles Interviewer Notetaker Observer Participant 173 174. Practice! !174 175. Exercise: User research interview Time: 15 min x 3 We will give you a research scenario and an interview script In your groups, assign roles of participant, interviewer, note taker, and observer (optional) Conduct the interview in 15 min, then switch roles. Hang on to your notes.Well need them. 175 176. Interview Scenario You are working on a new service to help people give gifts. The goal of the research is to identify unmet needs people might have with regard to giving gifts. 176 177. Listen for: Goals Priorities Tasks Motivators Barriers Habits Relationships Tools Environment 177 178. !Ready? Go! 178 179. Switch! 179 180. Remember: This is a research interview, not a friendly conversation. Listen for: Goals Priorities Tasks Motivators Barriers Habits Relationships Tools Environment 180 181. Switch! 181 182. Clear your mind. Listen for: Goals Priorities Tasks Motivators Barriers Habits Relationships Tools Environment 182 183. Time is up! 6 183 184. How did that go? 184 185. How about a focus group? 185 186. 186 187. Even when the subjects are well selected, focus groups are supposed to be merely the source of ideas that need to be researched. Robert K. Merton, Sociologist, invented focus groups 187 188. Everybody Lies 188 189. Anything else about activities? 189 190. Analysis 190 191. Analysis turns data into useful insights 191 192. 192 193. Analysis isnt complicated Compile data Look for patterns Identify insights Create models but it is challenging 193 194. You need to create meaning from data 194 195. Data > Meaning > Actionable Inputs 195 196. Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation 196 197. Observations are Verbatim quotes Reported behaviors Observed behavior 197 198. Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Collaborates on purchases Uses several devices Needs afrmation 198 199. Make product information sharable Save state in purchase process Users collaborate on purchases Insight Mandate/Action 199 200. Ground rules The goal of this exercise is to better understand the context and needs of the user. Wait to identify larger patterns until youve gone through the data. Clearly differentiate observations from interpretations (what happened versus what it means). No specic solutions until after youve gone through insights and principles. Solutions come next. 200 201. Practice! !201 202. Practice Exercise: Analysis Part 1 Time: 15 minutes. 1.Gather all notes 2.Scan notes for interesting observations 3.Write observations on notes 4.Put the notes in a pile 202 203. Look for quotes and observations that indicate Goals (what the participant wants to accomplish) Priorities (what is most important to the participant) Tasks (actions the participant takes to meet their goal) Barriers (what prevents accomplishing the goal) Motivators (the situation or event that starts down the task path) Habits (things the participant does on a regular basis) Relationships (who the participant interacts with doing the tasks) 203 204. You have 15 minutes.6 204 205. Get ready to nish!6 205 206. Time is up! 6 206 207. 207 208. Practice Exercise: Analysis Part 2 Time: 15 minutes. 1.Put notes on the board 2.Group notes into patterns 3.Label the group 4.Negotiate and advocate for your perspective 208 209. 1 2 3 209 210. Do this part last 210 211. You have 15 minutes.6 211 212. Get ready to nish!6 212 213. Time is up! 6 213 214. How did that go? 214 215. Creating a Model 215 216. Personal View Personal View Personal View 216 217. Shared Reality 217 218. Thinking is not useful until shared 218 219. A model is thinking made visible 219 220. Some examples 220 221. 221 222. 222 223. 223 224. 224 225. 225 226. 226 227. 227 228. 228 229. 229 230. 230 231. In summary A model simplies and claries complex ideas. Thinking isnt useful until its out where people can see it. An effective model makes it easy to incorporate new information. A model diagram is a tool, not an end in itself. Avoid the temptation to make diagrams more pretty than useful. An effective model communicates without needing an audio guide. 231 232. Personas 232 233. A persona is the user made visible 233 234. Busy mom is the ur-persona. 234 235. Ive never seen a persona called Married woman, no kids, with pristine hardwood. God, how I aspire to see that persona. -Steve Portigal 235 236. They can still be useful tools 236 237. Personas Distill ethnographic research Document representative groups of needs and behaviors as archetypes Represent relationships among user types Allow team to advocate for user needs Act as a reference point for decision-making Maintain empathy throughout design process 237 238. Personas must be based on actual research data 238 239. Fun, but not useful 239 240. A good model represents and simplies knowledge 240 241. Practice! !241 242. MAKE A SIMPLE JOURNEY ExperienceJourneyMap|Task:EatingLunch 242 243. Practice Exercise: User Journey Time: 15 minutes. 1.As a group, review your user interview notes to identify steps in gift purchase journey 2.Decide whether that step is positive or negative 3.Decide how much of a positive or negative 4.Fill in diagram 243 244. Time is up! 6 244 245. How did that go? 245 246. Reporting 246 247. 2 A useful report supports Clear goals Shared values Access to information Confident decisions 247 248. 2 You decide the purpose Informing? Inspiring? Focusing? Remembering? Recording? Deciding? 248 249. Research ReportStudy Title Date Completed Research Goal Activities Related Decisions Key Insights Supporting Observations Recommended Actions Questions for Further Study Keep it as brief as you can. 249 250. Building a research-driven culture 250 251. Capture the value of research 251 252. Use your report to tell a story 252 253. How most people do it Methods (what we did, usually in vast detail) Findings (what we found, often disconnected from biz goals) Meaning (the implications for our design work) Framing (How it connects to the project story maybe) zzzz 253 254. How you should Methods (a brief summary up front, most as an appendix) Findings (what we found, leading with the interesting bits) Meaning (the implications for your business) Framing (Setting the stage with context and a good story) $ $ $ 254 255. Finish line! 255 256. In summary Research creates a shared understanding of reality. Asking questions is uncomfortable. Embrace that feeling. A truly collaborative approach and environment is necessary for research to be effective, and it also makes it more fun. Clear goals and good questions are required. Choose only the research activities that answer real questions and inform your top priority design and development decisions. Practice! Observe and listen every day. Document! Report! Share! Its easy to lose what you learn. 256 257. Any questions? 257 258. Thank you! 258