using methodology feedback to improve courses: a .to consider how methodology feedback might be used

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  • Using Methodology Feedback to Improve Courses: A Case StudyPaul C. Corrigan

  • Introduce ILOs

    Assessment (a.k.a. feedback) Group Activity 1: Warm Up Purposes and Types of Assessment Group Activity 2: Effectiveness of Assessment

    Methodology Feedback Group Activity 3: Warm-up What is Methodology Feedback? Group Activity 4: Critical Analysis and Application

    Case Study: Methodology Feedback

    Summary and Conclusion

    Outline of Todays Seminar

    22

  • Intended Learning Outcomes ILO 1

    To review and gain further knowledge about assessment/ feedback

    ILO 2 To critically examine the concept of methodology

    feedback ILO 3

    To consider how methodology feedback might be usedfor your own teaching

    ILO 4 To examine a case study of methodology feedback

    Introduction

    33

  • ASSESSMENT

    4

  • In groups of about 3-4, discuss these questions and be ready to share your ideas with the rest of the seminar participants

    In your courses:1. What types of assessment/feedback do you use?2. What are your purposes of assessment?

    Activity 1 Warm Up

    55

  • Do you recognize these from your discussion of assessment?Some definitions of assessment terminologyDiagnostic Indicates how current performance differs from expected

    performance. Can be used to identify problems that a pupilmay be experiencing.

    Formative An assessment that helps pupils learn; results in actions thatare successful in closing the gap between current andexpected performance.

    Summative An assessment that is used to certify or record end of courseperformance or predict potential future attainment; the finalproduct of a unit or course; an examination grade.

    Evaluative Assessment information that is used to judge the performanceof schools or teachers; league tables.

    6

  • Purposes and Types of Assessment It is not the assessment itself that is diagnostic,

    formative, summative or evaluative but the waythat the information collected is used. For example, descriptive or prescriptive but could

    be others

    As William and Black (1996, in Weeden, Winterand Broadfoot, 1996) suggest, These terms aretherefore not descriptions of kinds of assessmentbut rather of the use to which information arisingfrom the assessments is put. 7

  • Two broad categories of purpose areDescriptive and non-judgmental ORPrescriptive and judgmental

    Some Purposes of Assessment & Type

    88

  • Teachers monitor students learning For example, a quiz for this purpose

    Could be judgmental/prescriptive Could be descriptive and non-judgmental to give

    teacher an idea of what needs to be re-taught

    Some Purposes of Assessment & Type

    99

  • Students monitor their own learning For example, answering questions at the end of a

    chapter for this purpose; Probably descriptive and non-judgmental

    Some Purposes of Assessment & Type

    101010

  • Teachers effectiveness is monitored For example, a teaching feedback form for this

    purpose Could be descriptive to show areas where improvement

    could be made Could be judgmental e.g., contract renewal

    Social purposes Institutions and students are assessed and described

    for the other benefits for the society For example, university league tables, recruitment of

    graduates

    Some Purposes of Assessment & Type

    1111

  • Activity 2 In groups of about 3-4, discuss this question

    and be ready to share your ideas with the rest of the seminar participants:

    How can you tell if that type of assessment is providing the information you need for a purpose?

    12

  • Do you recognize any of your ideas from the discussion in these concepts?Definition of validity, reliability and manageability

    Validity of assessment method

    To what extent does an assessment measure whatit sets out to measure?

    Reliability of assessment

    How consistent is the measurement of resultsbetween different teachers, between differenttest situations, etc.?

    Manageability of assessment

    Can the assessment be conducted without toomuch disruption to normal teaching?

    1313

  • Course/Programme Assessment Purpose

    Descriptive: to understand what is taking place, perhaps to make changes without judging a person

    Prescriptive: to judge quality and prescribe changes Etc.

    Type survey forms oral feedback from tutors hearsay focus groups with students focus groups with other stakeholders Etc. 14

  • Course/Programme Assessment How can you tell if the types of assessment just

    shown are valid, manageable and reliable? Are some more so than others?

    15

  • METHODOLOGY FEEDBACK

    16

  • Activity 3 In groups of about 3-4, discuss these

    statements: which of them do most persons inyour group believe to be true? Materials are only as good as the teachers who use

    them The attempt to produce teacher proof materials is

    both futile and undesirable Materials should be neutral; that is, they should be

    free of any bias in approach, method, or technique

    17

  • Methodology Feedback Methodology Feedback assumes that the same

    materials could be taught in different ways But effectively or not is another question

    In collecting feedback, both materials andteaching methods thus should be taken into account

    Two major factors to take into account forcourse/programme quality are materials andmethods

    18

  • Methods Techniques

    Materials

    Methodology

    Methodology: Methods and Materials

    1919

  • Prescribed WHAT Within an OBTL framework the content within teaching

    and learning activities (TLA) which are constructivelyaligned with course intended outcomes

    Actual WHAT The actual content that students were exposed to

    during the course

    Effective HOW Effective methods used to teach / students to learn the

    content Is linked to students learning strategies

    Methodology: The WHAT and HOW

    20

  • X

    X

    X X

    Methodology Feedback Table

    21

    Actual What

    Effective How

    Prescribed What

    Methodology

    Prescribed What

    Prescribed What

    Prescribed What

  • X

    X

    X X

    Methodology Feedback Table

    22

    Actual What

    Effective How

    Prescribed What

    Methodology

    What is supposed to be taught isbeing taught and in an effectiveway

    What is supposed to be taught isbeing taught but not in aneffective way

    What is supposed to be taught isnot being taught but what is beingtaught is taught effectively

    What is supposed to be taught isnot being taught but what isbeing taught is not being taughteffectively

    Prescribed What

    Prescribed What

    Prescribed What

  • 1. The prescribed content is being covered2. The prescribed content is being covered, but the

    methods are not consistent with students learningstrategies

    3. The prescribed content is not being taught, butthe methods are consistent with students learningstrategies

    4. The prescribed content is not being taught, andthe methods are not consistent with studentslearning strategies

    What can a Methodology Feedback Table can tell us?

    23

  • Remediation1. Change the teaching methods to coordinate with students

    learning strategies (unless you want the students to learn in anew way)

    2. Re-examine content for relevancy If relevant, then explain to tutor(s) changes that should be

    made in the actual content presented If not relevant, revise the content according to appropriate

    academic procedures3. The third & fourth situations Is the content relevant or not relevant? (See situation above) Are the methods preventing the content from being

    covered?

    What can a Methodology Feedback Table can tell us?

    24

  • Sometimes, the HOW is part of the WHAT that is to say the methods is part of the content

    Why is this so? In teacher training or professional development

    courses, methods are modeled for the participants That is, methods such as role play, teacher fronted,

    student-centered methods are modeled so that thestudents can learn them experientially and laterexplicitly reflect on them

    Methodology

    25

  • Literature Support for Methodology Feedback Sax (1997) implies that feedback on both

    materials and methods should be obtained forprogramme evaluation

    Nunan (1988 ) says a key question in assessmentof a programme is Are the materials, methods,and activities consistent wit the pre-specifiedobjectives? which he places this under the headingMethodology

    From these writers it is inferred, therefore, thatmethodology is comprised of two majorcomponents - materials and methods

    26

  • Other Support for Methodology Feedback Our teaching methods are not neutral They reflect conscious and/or unconscious

    assumptions about teaching and education Classical humanism Approach

    Content is most important

    Reconstructionism Approach The teacher is just a curriculum implementator

    Progressivism ApproachMethod is seen as very important

    27

  • Edward Anthony (1963) described the relationship among approach, method and technique

    28

    Approach (Education Philosophy) / Method / Technique

    28

  • Method Techniques Techniques Techniques

    Method Techniques Techniques Techniques

    Method Techniques Techniques Techniques

    Approach (Education Philosophy) / Method / Technique

    29

    APPROAC

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