Usability in Digital Libraries

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Usability in Digital Libraries. . - ariel@cs.biu.ac.il. Contents. What is a Digital Library (DL)? What is (DL) Usability? The Library of Congress (LoC) Usability? The Universal Library Challenge - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Usability in Digital Libraries -ariel@cs.biu.ac.il

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    ContentsWhat is a Digital Library (DL)?What is (DL) Usability?The Library of Congress (LoC) Usability?The Universal Library ChallengeFaceted Search Paradigm Web 2.0 & Library 2.0Talis Whisper Demo Usability?

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    Traditional vs. Digital Library

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    What is a Digital Library (DL)?

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    What is a Digital Library (DL)? (1)There are dozens of definitions.Most are very general and verbose.One of the better (shorter ) ones:A managed collection of information, with associated services, where the information is stored in digital formats and accessible over a network.W. Y. Arms, Digital Libraries, MIT Press, 2000http://www.cs.cornell.edu/wya/DigLib

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    What is a Digital Library (DL)? (2)We will use the following DL definition:1. Collection of Digital Objects 2. Knowledge Structures 3. Library Services 4. Library Categories: Domain, Focus & Topic 5. Quality Control 6. Preservation/Persistence Sharon, T. & Frank, A., "Digital Libraries on the Internet", IFLA'00 66th IFLA Council and General Conference, Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18, August 2000 http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla66/papers/029-142e.htm

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    ContentsWhat is a Digital Library (DL)?What is (DL) Usability?The Library of Congress (LoC) Usability?The Universal Library ChallengeFaceted Search Paradigm Web 2.0 & Library 2.0 Talis Whisper Demo Usability?

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    What is (DL) Usability? Jeng, Judy (2005). What is usability in the context of the digital library and how can it be measured?, Information Technology and Libraries, 24(2), 47-56. Jeng, Judy (2006). An evaluation model for assessing usability of academic digital libraries, Research Forum Presentation, New Jersey Library Association.

    http://web.njcu.edu/sites/faculty/jjeng/Content/default.asp

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    What is Usability?Usability is a multidimensional construct that can be examined from various perspectives. The term usability has been used broadly and means different things to different people. Many studies on usability focus on interface design. Some relate usability to ease-of-use or user-friendliness and consider it from an interface effectiveness point-of-view. This view makes sense, as usability has theoretical base in human-computer interaction.

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    Attributes of UsabilityAuthors AttributesBooth (1989) usefulness, effectiveness, learnability, attitudeBrinck et al. (2002) functionally correct, efficient to use, easy to learn, easy to remember,error tolerant, and subjectively pleasingClairmont et al. (1999) successfully learn and use a product to achieve a goalDumas & Redish (1993) perform tasks quickly and easilyFurtado et al. (2003) ease of use and learningGluck (1997) useableness, usefulnessGuillemette (1995) effectively used by target users to perform tasksHix & Hartson (1993) initial performance, long-term performance, learnability, retainability,advanced feature usage, first impression, and long-term user satisfactionISO (1994) effectiveness, efficiency, satisfactionKengeri et al. (1999) effectiveness, likeability, learnability, usefulnessKim (2002) interface effectivenessNielsen (1993) learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, satisfactionOulanov & Pajarillo (2002) affect, efficiency, control, helpfulness, adaptabilityShackel (1986) effectiveness, learnability, flexibility, user attitudeFigure 1. Attributes of usability

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    DL Usability ProblemsDigital libraries Awareness/Location problems.Innumerable opaque digital libraries.Endless authentication challenges.Willfully different/complex interfaces intra-library and inter-library.Insistence on attempting to suck everyone and everything into the library site.Not the lightweight, flexible, intelligent and responsive applications encountered online every day (Google, Amazon, Flickr, etc).

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    DL Awareness/Location ProblemsLack of familiarity and use of DLs.Hard to locate/identify DLs scattered around the Web.DLs categories and user interfaces are not always clear/usable.Not enough Metadata kept for/on DLs.Harvesting/Indexing information in DLs.

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    SELFDL Gateway to World of DLsYom Tov, N. & Frank, A., Harnessing Search Engine (SEs) Technologies to raise Awareness and Discovery of Digital Libraries (DLs), Workshop on Libraries on the Net, Haifa University, 2 March 2006 http://lib.haifa.ac.il/www/homepage/yomiyun2006/SELFDL_Presentation.pdf

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    ContentsWhat is a Digital Library (DL)?What is (DL) Usability?The Library of Congress (LoC) Usability?The Universal Library Challenge Web 2.0 & Library 2.0Talis Whisper Demo Usability?

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    The Library of Congress (LoC) Usability?http://www.loc.gov/Task:browse for a digital object LoC from 1800; 132 million items

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    Browse Collections by Topichttp://memory.loc.gov/

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    Technology, Industry: 13 collections

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    The Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers

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    Subject Index

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    Subjects

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    Items 1 through 19 of 19

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    Telegram from Alexander Graham Bell to Alexander Melville Bell

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    Archival grayscale/color (JPEG - 200K) Got to a digital object at last!!

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    Alternative - Search Descriptive Information and/or Full Text

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    Search Results (match any of these words )Not Googley!!

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    But has More browse options

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    ContentsWhat is a Digital Library (DL)?What is (DL) Usability?The Library of Congress (LoC) Usability?The Universal Library Challenge Faceted Search Paradigm Web 2.0 & Library 2.0Talis Whisper Demo Usability?

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    The Universal Library Challengehttp://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/14/magazine/14publishing.html?th=&emc=th&pagewanted=print

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    The Universal Library Library of all LibrariesFrom the days of Sumerian clay tablets till now, humans have "published" at least:32 million books, 750 million articles & essays500 million images, 25 million songs500,000 movies, 3 million videos, TV shows & short films100 billion public Web pages All this material is currently contained in all the libraries and archives of the world. When fully digitized, the whole lot could be compressed (at current technological rates) into 50 Petabytes (PB = 1024 TBs).But building a universal library is a humongous undertaking!

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    So how to tie all the pieces together?

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    Link/Tag/Reference GranularityEach word in each book can be cross-linked, clustered, cited, extracted, indexed, analyzed, annotated, remixed, reassembled and woven deeper into the culture than ever before. In the universal library, no book will be an island.But why just for words imagine: books, chapters, single pages, snippets of pages, etc.In the new world of books, every bit informs another; every page reads all the other pages.

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    Virtual Bookshelves"Once digitized, books can be unraveled into single pages or be reduced further, into snippets of a page. These snippets will be remixed into reordered books and virtual bookshelves. The universal library will encourage the creation of virtual "bookshelves" a collection of texts, some as short as a paragraph, others as long as entire books, that form a library shelf's worth of specialized information. And as with music playlists, once created, these "bookshelves" will be published and swapped in the public commons.

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    Traditional Bookshelf Static but Visual!

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    What's New display Dynamic & Visual!http://monkey.org/~emv/superpatron/aadlnewnonfiction.html

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    The Internet Archive DLWilliam Y. Arms, et al., A Research Library Based on the Historical Collections of the Internet Archive, Cornell University, D-Lib Magazine, 12(2), February 2006.The collections are some ten billion Web pages from the historical collections of the Internet Archive. The research library challenge is to organize the materials and provide powerful, intuitive tools that will make a huge collection of semi-structured data accessible to researchers, without demanding high levels of computing expertise.

    http://www.dlib.org/dlib/february06/arms/02arms.html

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    Architecture of how researchers use the library

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    ContentsWhat is a Digital Library (DL)?What is (DL) Usability?The Library of Congress (LoC) Usability?The Universal Library ChallengeFaceted Search Paradigm Web 2.0 & Library 2.0Talis Whisper Demo Usability?

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    Faceted Search Paradigm?Two Classic Web Search Paradigms:Navigational search uses a hierarchy structure (taxonomy) to enable users to browse the information space by iteratively narrowing the scope of their quest in a predetermined order.Exemplified by Yahoo! Directory, DMOZ, etc. Direct search allows users to write their queries as words in a text box. This approach has been made enormously popular by Web search engines.Exemplified by Google and Yahoo! Search, etc.

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    New Web Search/Browse ParadigmFaceted search enables users to navigate a multi-dimensional information space by combining text search with a progressive narrowing of choices in each dimension. It has become the prevailing user interaction mechanism in e-commerce sites and is being extended to deal with semi-structured data, continuous dimensions, and folksonomies. http://www.searchtools.com/info/faceted-metadata.html

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    Features of Faceted SearchDisplaying aspects of the current results set in multiple categorization schemes. Showing only populated categories, no dead-ends (links leading to empty lists).Displaying a count of the contents of each category, warning the user how many more choices to see.Generating groupings on the fly, such as size or price or date. Drill down by facet, so a diamond buyer could choose price, clarity, size and setting.

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    Tower Records (Endeca) Search for your favorite artist or record title. You'll see a list of search results. Youll also see a set of options including genre, album feature, price range, format and more.

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    American Express Travel and Leisure (i411) After doing a search, the listing shows options for the matching articles, allowing travelers to choose the one that is most likely to answer their questions.

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    BeachHouse.com (Siderean) A search for beach houses which have internet connections finds some results, and the interface allows vacationers to search/browse by the country, cost, number of bedrooms, and other criteria.

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    ContentsWhat is a Digital Library (DL)?What is (DL) Usability?The Library of Congress (LoC) Usability?The Universal Library ChallengeFaceted Search Paradigm Web 2.0 & Library 2.0 Talis Whisper Demo Usability?

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    Thinking Outside of the Box

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    Web 2.0 & Library 2.0hinchcliffe.org/ img/web2tree.jpg

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    Web 2.0 Companies/Logoshttp://flickr.com/photos/stabilo-boss

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    The Terrible Twos: Web 2.0, Library 2.0, and Morehttp://www.infotoday.com/online/may06/OnTheNet.shtml

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    Web 2.0 ConceptThe nebulous Web 2.0 concept represents a second wave of Web techniques to create more interactive and easy-to-use Web sites using new technologies (or using older technologies in a new way). Often used Web 2.0 examples: del.icio.us, Flickr, Listible, Writely, Yahoo! Answers, Google Maps, Meebo, and Digg. Web 2.0 technologies often used: Ajax, blogs, APIs, CSS, RSS, social networking, tagging, clouds, and wikis.

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    Library 2.0 (L2) ConceptLike Web 2.0, the definitions for L2 are many:A port of Web 2.0 concepts to the library world.A desire to rethink and retool library services.L2 has a broad focus and has also engendered much debate:L2 incorporates blogs, wikis, instant messaging, RSS, and social networking into a library services setting.Finding new ways of involving patrons by letting them contribute comments, add tags, rate library items, and get involved in other interactive and collaborative activities.

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    ContentsWhat is a Digital Library (DL)?What is (DL) Usability?The Library of Congress (LoC) Usability?The Universal Library ChallengeFaceted Search Paradigm Web 2.0 & Library 2.0Talis Whisper Demo Usability?

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    Talis Whisper Demo Usability?

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    Need a Shared DL Platform?!

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    Talis Whisper Site (mashup)http://www.talis.com/tdn/whisper

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    Talis Whisper Demonstrator (Ajax)

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    Talis Whisper Demonstrator (L2)

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    Amazon - Is the book held in a UK library?

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    Talis Locator Map

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    Talis Library 2.0 White PapersWeb 2.0: Building the New Library Dr. Paul Miller, Technology Evangelist, October 2005 Do Libraries Matter? The Rise of Library 2.0 Ken Chad & Dr. Paul Miller, November 2005 Talis Platform: Supporting the Next Generation of Applications for Delivering Rich, Library Content and Services Dave Barker, November 2005 Library 2.0 - The Challenge of Disruptive Innovation Dr. Paul Miller, Technology Evangelist, February 2006Coming together around Library 2.0 Dr. Paul Miller, D-Lib Magazine, 12/4, February 2006http://www.talis.com/resources/index.shtml

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    DL Usability? If/all in time

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