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  • UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

    STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AUTONOMOUS

    GUIDED VEHICLE (AGV) FOR PARTS SUPPLY

    This report submitted in accordance with requirement of the Universiti Teknikal

    Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for the Bachelors Degree in Mechanical Engineering

    Technology (Automotive Technology) (Hons.)

    by

    KHAIRUL HAZWAN BIN MOHD RASIT

    B071110332

    921106-04-5343

    FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

    2015

  • DECLARATION

    I hereby, declare that this report entitled Structural Design And Analysis of

    Autonomous Guided Vehicle (AGV) For Parts Supply is the result of my own research

    except as cited in the references.

    Signature : .........................................................

    Authors Name : .........................................................

    Date : .........................................................

  • APPROVAL

    This report is submitted to the Faculty of Engineering Technology of UTeM as a partial

    fulfillment of the requirements for the Bachelors Degree in Mechanical Engineering

    Technology (Automotive Technology) (Hons.). The member of the supervisory is as

    follow:

    .

    (Project Supervisor)

  • i

    ABSTRACT

    For the last 10 years, the world economic growth rapidly and have been becomes the battle

    stage between the industrial companies. Autonomous Guided Vehicle is introduced to support

    the supply system however the initial investment is very high and it cannot convince a certain

    company to invest such amount of money for the system. In this project, the focus research is

    more on a low cost lightweight AGV development. Lightweight design leads to less energy

    consume to carry its body. The purpose of this study is design a low cost, light body AGV that

    to be used in parts supply using polyboxes. On top of that, the structural strength analyses are

    performed through computer aided engineering (CAE) simulation. The structure of the AGV

    also put into consideration of the vehicle architecture, material properties and product

    maintainability in innovative approach.

  • ii

    ABSTRAK

    Sejak 10 tahun kebelakangan ini, pertumbuhan ekonomi dunia semakin cepat dan telah

    menjadi pentas pertempuran di antara syarikat-syarikat industri. Kenderaan autonomi

    berpandu diperkenalkan untuk menyokong sistem bekalan bagaimanapun pelaburan awal

    adalah sangat tinggi dan sukar untuk meyakinkan syarikat tertentu untuk melabur jumlah wang

    untuk sistem itu. Dalam projek ini, penyelidikan tumpuan adalah lebih kepada kos rendah

    serta rangka AGV yang ringan. Reka bentuk yang ringan membawa kepada tenaga yang

    kurang untuk menjalankan badannya . Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk reka bentuk AGV yang

    akan digunakan di bahagian-bahagian bekalan alatan yang menggunakan polyboxes. Selain itu,

    reka bentuk kekuatan struktur akan diuji dan dianalisis melalui bantuan komputer simulasi

    kejuruteraan. Struktur AGV juga sudah dimasukkan ke dalam pertimbangan seni bina

    kenderaan, sifat bahan dan penyelenggaraan produk dalam pendekatan inovatif .

  • iii

    DEDICATION

    Dedicated to my father, Mohd Rasit bin Mohd Hassan and my mother, Norkiah binti Hashim.

    To my supervisor, Ir. Mazlan bin Ahmad Mansor, co-supervisor, Mr. Mohd Suffian bin Ab

    Razak, lecturers and friends for all of their help and friendship.

  • iv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    First of all, I express my deepest thanks and gratitudes to Allah S.W.T who give me

    the spirit and the soul throughout the duration of my final year project. I have completed this

    project even though there are many difficulty and hardship along the way.

    I would like to express my appreciation and deep respects to my supervisor, Ir. Mazlan

    bin Ahmad Mansor for the guidance and encouraged during finishing this project. Not to

    forget, my co-supervisor Mr. Mohd Suffian bin Ab Razak for his constant guidance and

    support during my thesis writing is invaluable to me and continuous direction and opinion

    regarding the flow of the project has invaluable contribution to achieve the objectives of the

    project.

    Thanks to my family, who has been the loveliest advisor to give constant support and

    inspiration through my campus life. Their supports are meant so much to me in finishing this

    project. Last but not least, I thank everyone who involved directly and indirectly in this project.

    Without them, this PSM report will not good completed like this.

  • v

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    ABSTRACT i

    ABSTRAK ii

    DEDICATION iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

    TABLE OF CONTENTS v

    LIST OF TABLES ix

    LIST OF FIGURES x

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xiii

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 Background of the Study 1

    1.2 Problem Statement 2

    1.3 Objectives 3

    1.4 Scope 4

    CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 5

    2.1 Introduction 5

    2.2 Material Handling Equipment Automated Guided Vehicle 6

    2.2.1 Introduction to Material Handling Equipment Technology 6

    2.2.2 Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system 6

    2.2.3 Description of an AGV system 7

    2.3 AGV Structure Design 8

    2.3.1 Steel bridge background 9

    2.4 Steel bridges main structural design 11

  • vi

    2.4.1 Pratt truss bridges 12

    2.4.2 Warren truss bridges 16

    2.4.3 Other types 17

    2.5 Design comparison 18

    2.6 Software Tools 20

    2.6.1 Structural Design and Simulation 20

    2.6.1.1 CATIA 20

    2.6.1.2 Hyperworks solidThinking 21

    2.6.1.3 SpaceClaim 22

    CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 24

    3.1 Introduction 24

    3.2 Overall Process 24

    3.3 Process Flow Chart 25

    3.3.1 Design Process Flow 26

    3.3.2 Design Concept and Brainstorming 27

    3.3.3 Bill of Materials 29

    3.3.4 CAD Design 31

    3.3.5 CAE Simulation Test 32

    3.3.6 Fabrication 32

    3.4 System Architecture 32

    3.5 Calculation 33

    3.5.1 Force 33

    3.5.2 Rolling Resistance 33

    3.5.3 Gradient Resistance 34

    3.5.4 Total Tractive Effort 34

    3.5.5 AGV total tractive effort calculation 35

  • vii

    3.6 Material of Model 36

    3.7 Design Space 36

    3.8 Non-Design Space 36

    CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 38

    4.1 Introduction 38

    4.2 Finite Element Analysis 38

    4.2.1 General Procedure on FEA 38

    4.2.1.1 Step 1: CAE Driven Structurally Efficient 39

    Conceptual Design

    4.2.2 Conceptual Design Process Flow 41

    4.2.2.1 Conceptual design preparation 42

    4.2.2.2 Create design space 42

    4.2.2.3 Topology optimization 43

    4.2.2.4 Result interpretation 44

    4.2.2.5 New structurally efficient conceptual design 45

    4.2.3 Design Optimization 46

    4.2.3.1 Modify/ prepare design based on previous iteration result 47

    4.2.3.2 Design analysis 47

    4.2.3.3 Design optimization 47

    4.2.3.4 Design completed 47

    4.3 Design process 48

    4.3.1 Design Iteration #1 48

    4.3.2 Design Iteration #2 50

    4.3.3 Design Iteration #3 52

    4.3.4 Design Iteration #4 53

    4.3.5 Design Iteration #5 55

  • viii

    4.3.6 Design Iteration #6 56

    4.3.7 Design Iteration #7 58

    4.3.9 Final Design 59

    4.4 Vehicle structure mass 60

    4.5 Von Mises Stress 61

    CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 63

    5.1 Future studies 63

    REFERENCES 65

    APPENDICES 67

  • ix

    LIST OF TABLES

    3.1 The Bill of Material (B.O.M) list 29

    3.2 Material properties of AGV frame 36

  • x

    LIST OF FIGURES

    1.1 Example of AGV in the market 3

    2.1 Autonomous guided vehicle system in a factory 7

    2.2 Guide path of an AGV 8

    2.3 A Pratt truss construction 12

    2.4 A Pratt truss with addition of top polygon arc 13

    2.5 A Parker truss but with exactly 5 pieces to the top chord 13

    2.6 A lenticular truss construction 14

    2.7 A Baltimore truss construction 15

    2.8 Pennsylvania truss construction 15

    2.9 A Whipple truss configuration 16

    2.10 A construction of Warren truss 17

    2.11 A double Warren truss configuration 17

    2.12 A bowstring truss construction 18

    2.13 A Fink truss configuration 18

    2.14 Steel bridges construction trusses 19

    2.15 Example drawing use CATIA software 21

    2.16 Example of simulation results 22

    2.17 SpaceClaim interface window 23

    3.1 Flow chart for design and development of the structure 26

    3.2 The first concept design 27

    3.2 The first concept design 28

    3.4 The third concept design 28

  • xi

    3.5 An actual desi

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