united kingdom government, politics, political culture, policy debates, political parties

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  • United KingdomGovernment, Politics, Political Culture, Policy Debates,Political Parties

  • British GradualismMagna CartaDevelopment of ParliamentThe Reformation and the Church of EnglandEnglish Civil WarGlorious Revolution and the Bill of Rights

  • Electoral ReformGreat Reform Acts of 1832 and 1867Gives the right to vote to the upper classCorrects the problem of malapportionment, eliminating the rotten boroughsRepresentation of the People Acts 1884, 1885, 1918,1928 expanding the suffrage

  • Noblesse ObligeLegacy of Feudalism social deferenceEvolution not revolutionUtilitarianism Jeremy BenthamDevelopment of the Liberal and Conservative (Tory) PartiesLaws passed benefitting the working class, allowing labor unions, free public education, ban on child labor, creation of the pension system

  • Development of modern political parties Labour and ConservativesParliament Act 1911Collectivist Consensus 1946 1979Representation of the People Act 1948Representation of the People Act 1969Life Peerages Act 1958Constitution Reform Act 2005Why evolution, not revolution?What provided stability in Britain?Hegemonic Power

  • Civic CultureSupportive of the political system and the rules of the gamePluralistic and tolerantDeferencePolitical EfficacyTrust in GovernmentHigh level of political participationGeographic, economic, social class and ethnic/religious cleavages

  • The StateHouse of Commons

    Prime MinisterCabinet - Collective ResponsibilityMinisters of ___and Chancellor of the ExchequerUncodified Constitution

  • Role of the Monarch

    House of Lords

    Fusion of powers

    Parliamentary Sovereignty

    Supreme Court

  • House of CommonsFrontbenchersBackbenchersShadow CabinetSpeakerParty WhipsVoting by DivisionQuestion TimeMinisterial ResponsibilitySelect Committees

  • Elections May be held at any time by the choice of the Prime Minister or caused by a vote of no confidence Must be held at least every 5 years, one month campaign, caretaker gov., by-elections may be heldParty Conferences party centralizationSingle member districts by plurality (first past the post) in 646 small elections for the House of Commons, elections for local councils.PM chosen by majority of the House of C

  • Political CultureBelief in representative democracyBelief individual rights, equality, majority ruleParliamentary Sovereignty and the Constitutional MonarchyUtilitarianism the role of the gov. is to do the most good for the most peopleCapitalismImportance of history and tradition, the role of the monarch and the aristocracy

  • House of LordsLords SpiritualLife peers, hereditary peersAppointed by the monarch upon the recommendation of the Prime MinisterCrossbenchersWhy does it have any influence?

  • WhitehallCivil Service regular and senior levelsRoles in administration and policy design120 executive agenciesRegulatory agencies Of___QUANGOsPermanent Secretaries chosen by the Prime Minister usually from the civil serviceThe patron client system

  • How Policy is MadePolicy committees PM, Cabinet, Permanent Secretaries, leaders of appropriate interest groups ( the integrated elite) corporatismParty manifestoGreen PaperConsensus of CabinetWhite PaperStanding Committees

  • How a Bill Becomes LawStanding Committees are proportional, may mark up a billMay be withdrawn by the PM or taken to the floor of the House of CommonsDebate in H of C and passage by divisionImportance of Party DisciplineTo the House of Lords for debate, amendment, approval or vetoIf necessary, returned to H of Commons for passageTo the Queen for the Royal Assent

  • Interest GroupsTUC Trades Union CongressCBI Confederation of British IndustryOthers : women, environmentalists, ethnic, religious, senior citizens, veterans, The CityCorporatismClientelismInterest groups may make campaign contributions and sponsor candidates

  • Political PartiesConservative (Tories) support less regulation of business, lower taxes, limits on immigration, against the adoption of the euro, typically supported by CBI. Party led by David CameronLabour supports membership in the EU and a wait and see decision on the adoption of the euro, revision of the House of Lords/Constitution Reform Act, improvement of services (like NHS), welfare to work, devolution, traditionally supported by TUC, working class Party Leader Gordon Brown

  • Political PartiesLiberal Democrats formed in the 1970s when the Social Democrats split from Labour and joined the remnants of the Liberal Party The Lib Dems want withdrawal from Iraq, adoption of the euro, increased services and local government, environmental policies, constitutional reform and elections by proportional rep.Party Leader Nick CleggPlaid Cymru protecting Welsh culture

  • Political PartiesScottish National Party concerned about the environment, want oil profits shared with Scotland, some want independenceSocial Democrat and Labor Party - more rights for Catholics in N.I.Sinn Fein (was the political arm of the IRA) want N.I. to join the Republic of Ireland and the British to leave N.I.

  • Political PartiesUlster Unionists N.I. protestants who want to remain a part of the U.K.Democratic Unionists N.I. protestants who want to remain a part of the U.K. and were the political arm of the UDA, the Ulster Defense Association, and the UVF, the Ulster Volunteer Force

  • The Collectivist ConsensusKeynesianism It is the role of the gov. to provide jobs and services. To improve the economy the government needs to spend money, deficit spending and interest rate adjustment are necessaryNationalization, NHS, the dole, unions, public education through university levelThe Winter of Discontent 1979 strikes, high taxes, inefficient services

  • ThatcherismMonetarism It is not the gov.s job to provide jobs, to help the economy taxes must be lowered and spending cutPrivatization, crack down on unions, lowered taxes, emphasized individual responsibility, an enterprise cultureNo negotiation in N.I., war in the Falklands, increased defense spending

  • The European UnionSingle Europe Act 1986Maastricht Treaty 1992 Social Charter for Workers and the plan for the common currency, the euroConcerns: national sovereignty v. supranational authority, monetary policyViews of Thatcher, Blair, and the Liberal Democrats

  • Northern Ireland1600s the Ulster Plantation1690 James II tries to free Ireland and become King, Battle of the Boyne1905 Sinn Fein founded1916 Easter Rebellion1920-21 the Anglo-Irish War Irish Free State formed, NI remains part of UK1949 The Ireland Act Rep. of Ireland recognized, N.I. remains part of UK

  • Northern Ireland1969 Civil Rights marches, Royal Ulster Constabulary, British troops occupy N.I.1972 Bloody Sunday, N.I. Parliament is dissolved1994 Cease Fire, beginning of peace talks1998 The Good Friday Peace AccordsElections held for new government in N.I.

  • Blair and the Third WayThe Good Friday Peace AccordsDevolutionWelfare to work the stakeholder societyImproving the NHS, public servicesBigger EU role, wait and see on the euroMoving Labour to the center, pragmatism v. party activistsParty manifestoReduced role of TUC

  • The Electorate and Political AttitudesWho votes for Labour?Who votes for the Conservatives?Who votes for the Liberal Democrats?Trust in GovernmentCivil Liberties and National SecurityEthnic, Economic, Social CleavagesBelief in the Role of Government

  • Iraq, Immigration, War on Terror, Energy, Economic Challenges, the E.U. and the Commonwealth


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