unit 7 - our biosphere climatic influences terrestrial biomes aquatic ecosystems

Download Unit 7 - Our Biosphere Climatic Influences Terrestrial Biomes Aquatic Ecosystems

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  • Unit 7 - Our Biosphere Climatic Influences Terrestrial Biomes Aquatic Ecosystems
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  • Vocabulary Unit 7 (22) Aphotic zoneHibernation Benthic zoneLittoral zone BiomeLimnetic zone ClimatePermafrost ConiferousPhotic zone DeciduousThermohaline circulation El NinoTopography EstivationUpwelling Estuary Weather Flood plainWetland Greenhouse effect Greenhouse gas
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  • Unit 7A Climatic Influences Chps. 16.1 & 16.2
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  • Weather Weatherwhat is it? What is happening in the atmosphere at a particular place at a particular moment The temperature is 82 with winds coming out of the southwest.
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  • Climate Climate is the average weather in an area over a long period of time Summer temperatures usually reach into the low 90s with scattered afternoon thunderstorms. Factors: temperature, humidity, winds, precipitations These factors determine what types of organisms live in a region
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  • What factors determine climate? 1.Latitude 2.Atmospheric circulation patterns 3.Ocean circulation patterns 4.Local geography 5.Seasonal changes in climate
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  • 1. Latitude The distance from the equator measured in degrees north and south of the equator Determines the amount of solar energy an area receives Vertical concentrated rays v.s. oblique dispersed rays
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  • 2. Atmospheric circulation patterns Cold air sinks, warm air rises Warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air Cooler air causes water vapor to condense into liquid Solar energy warms the air closest to the Earths surface, causing it to rise Theres more
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  • Rising air is replaced by cooler air flowing in from further north and south Resulting in a circulation cell Cool air over the equator cannot sink and is forced away, sinking at about 30 latitude This causes warmer dry air, and is why most of the Earths deserts are at this latitude
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  • 3. Ocean circulation patterns Water holds heat Currents redistribute warm and cool masses of water Coastal areas have a more moderate climate with more moisture U.S. temperate rain forest
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  • 4. Local geography Temperatures fall with increase in elevation (air cools as it rises) Mountains influence distribution of precipitation Warming air draws up moisture from the surface of the Earth Cooling air releases its moisture Rain on the west side, deserts in the rain shadow of the mountains
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  • 5. Seasonal changes Seasons result from the Earths orbit around the sun and the tilt of the Earth relative to its path Four seasons occur, except in the Tropics where it remains constant
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  • Greenhouse Effect What is it? Light energy goes through the atmosphere and heats the Earth As heat rises, some of it escapes back into space The rest of the heat is trapped by gases in the troposphere, which then warm the air
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  • Greenhouse Gases The gases that trap and radiate heat back to the Earth The major greenhouse gases: Water vapor, carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and nitrous oxide
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  • Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Fluctuation: Seasonal lower in the summer as plants use it up; higher in the winter as dying plants release carbon Why? Burning fossil fuels releases stored carbon Burning living plants releases carbon Oceans absorb 50 times more CO 2 than air
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  • Global warming Increasing levels of greenhouse gases increases the average temperature of the Earth This produces a warmer climate Oceans absorb more heat, increasing hurricanes and typhoons Disrupted weather patterns could alter agriculture Sea levels will rise due to melting glaciers
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  • How to slow down global warming: Use less fossil fuels, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere Preserve existing forests Plant more trees
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  • How oceans affect climate By transporting heat and absorbing CO 2 Thermohaline circulation: warmer, less salty water moves along the surface; colder, saltier, denser water moves deep Colder, saltier water at the poles sinks while warmer, less salty from the equator moves to take the place of the cooler water
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  • El Nio & La Nia Interactions between the oceans & the atmosphere that affect climate Change in air pressure, wind patterns, ocean temperature & ocean circulation in the Pacific Ocean Normally, winds and currents move warm water west along the equator El Nio: winds weaken & warm water flows back towards S. America, rains in S. Cali. La Nia: opposite, cooler water in the eastern Pacific Ocean
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  • El Nio & La Nia
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  • Unit 7 B Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 6
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  • Biomes Biomes - areas that have distinctive climates and organisms Biomes are named according to their plant life Climate is the main determinant
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  • 1. Tropical Rain Forests Occur in a belt around the Earth near the equator Always humid and warm Get about 100 of rain a year & strong sunlight year-round Ideal climate for growing plants Soil is thin and poor
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  • Plant adaptations Tropical Rain Forests Plants grow in layers Dense canopy at top absorbs most of the sunlight Little light reaches the understory Epiphytes: plants that grow on other plants instead of soil
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  • Animal adaptations Tropical Rain Forests Great diversity of animals, each adapted to exploit a specific resource Camouflage is common
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  • Threats to Rain Forests Decreased from covering 20% to 7% of the Earth Destroyed by logging or clearing for ranches Animals and native people are becoming extinct
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  • The canopy receives over 95% of available sunlight, leaving very little for vegetation below. How would this affect photosynthesis at the lower levels? Where would you find the greatest amount of biomass in the rain forest? At what level of the rain forest would you most likely find herbivores? Decomposers? How is a rain forest like the ocean? Because of the dense shade on the forest floor, a rain forest is NOT a jungle. Why?
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  • Countries that have Tropical Rain Forests Brazil Ecuador Thailand Cambodia Venezuela Columbia Guatemala Costa Rica
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  • 2. Tropical Dry Forest Rainfall is highly seasonal; wet & dry seasons span about year each India, southern N. American, Central America, S. America, SE Asia Wet season rains are very heavy Organisms must adapt to fluctuations in precipitation and temperature Most trees are deciduous; roots deeper than tropical rain forest; some store water Animals migrate, estivate
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  • 3. Temperate Rain Forests Occur in North & South America, Australia, & New Zealand Pacific northwest is only one in U.S. Cool, humid forests pervaded by moisture and abundant moss High rainfall & moderate temperatures provide ideal climate for lots of plant growth Coniferous (cone-bearing) trees like cedars, spruces, hemlocks, firs
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  • 4. Temperate Deciduous Forests Trees drop their broad, flat leaves each fall Generally occur between 30 and 50 north latitude Seasonal variations can be extreme Only 4 - 6 months of growing season Moist (30-100 rainfall per year) Soil is rich and deep
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  • Animal Adaptations Temperate Deciduous Forests Numerous habitats, generally organized by layers Birds migrate, animals become inactive, insects enter a state of very low metabolic activity
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  • 5. Boreal Forests/Taiga The northern coniferous forest Terrain is rough and forest floor is sparsely vegetated Winters are long and extremely cold Frost-free growing season is short, but enhanced by constant daylight Most of precipitation falls as snow
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  • Plant adaptations - Boreal Conifers do not shed their needles, whose narrow shape & waxy coat helps the conifer to retain water Conifers cone shape helps it shed snow, thick bark protects it from frost, & shallow root system uses water immediately Needles are acidic, deterring competitive plant growth Soil forms slowly because climate & acidity hinder decomposition
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  • Animal adaptations Boreal Forests Lakes and swamps attract birds in summer.lots of insects! Fur color changes Underground burrows for insulation
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  • Countries that have Boreal Forests Norway Sweden Finland Russia Canada Alaska (U.S.) Germany Northern China
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  • Grassland, Deserts, & Tundra Characterized by less rainfall and less diversity of species
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