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  • UNIT 2 SAP ERP Basics and Navigation

    Lesson 1Defining System-Wide Concepts 26

    Lesson 2Explaining SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse Concepts 38

    Lesson 3Navigating Within the SAP ERP System 49

    Exercise 1: Navigate Within the SAP ERP System 61

    Lesson 4Personalizing the User Interface 65

    Exercise 2: Personalize the User Interface 67

    UNIT OBJECTIVES Describe the underlying concepts that apply to all SAP ERP applications Map an organization to the SAP organizational levels Identify the master data records that support specific business processes Explain how transactions are used in SAP ERP Identify various types of reporting solutions Explain the basic concepts and architecture of SAP NetWeaver BW Identify the aspects of navigation within the SAP system Navigate the SAP system Personalize the SAP user interface

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  • Unit 2Lesson 1

    Defining System-Wide Concepts

    LESSON OVERVIEWThis lesson focuses on the underlying concepts of the SAP ERP system.Business ExampleAs a project team member, you will be using SAP to track and analyze data about your organization. For this reason, you require the following knowledge: An understanding of the underlying concepts that apply to all SAP ERP applications An understanding of the SAP ERP organizational levels and elements An understanding of the master data functions in SAP ERP

    LESSON OBJECTIVESAfter completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe the underlying concepts that apply to all SAP ERP applications Map an organization to the SAP organizational levels Identify the master data records that support specific business processes Explain how transactions are used in SAP ERP Identify various types of reporting solutions

    System-Wide ConceptsThe system-wide concepts in SAP ERP are as follows: Organizational levels Master data Transactions

    26 Copyright . All rights reserved.

  • Organizational Levels

    Figure 17: Organizational Levels Terminology

    The enterprise structure of a company is mapped to SAP applications using organizational units.Organizational units represent the enterprise structure in terms of legal and/or business-related purposes.Organizational units include legal company entities, plants, storage locations, sales offices, and profit centers.Examples: Client is the highest-level unit of all organizational elements. It represents the enterprise or

    headquarters group. Company code is a unit used in the balance sheet of a legally independent enterprise. It is

    the central organizational element of Financial Accounting (FI). Sales organization is the central organizational element of Sales and Distribution that

    controls the terms of sale to the customer. A division is usually used to represent a product line.

    Plant is the central organizational unit in the context of production planning. A plant can manufacture product, distribute product, or provide a service.

    Material stocks can be differentiated within one plant according to the storage location in the context of inventory management.Organizational units may be assigned to a single application or to several applications. For example, a sales organization is assigned to Sales and Distribution, while a plant is assigned to materials management, production planning, and sales.

    Lesson: Defining System-Wide Concepts

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  • Master data is created and assigned to organizational structures at various levels.

    Master Data

    Figure 18: Master Data Example Customer Master

    Master data is used long term in the SAP system for several business processes. Master data is created centrally and can be used by all applications and all authorized users for many business processes. Examples of master data in SAP include customers, materials, and vendors.A customer master contains key information that defines the business relationship between a company and its customer. Master data supports the execution of key business processes such as customer requests, deliveries, invoices, and payments.Master data also has an organizational aspect because the data is organized into views that are assigned to organizational elements.The customer master in the figure is organized into the following views, each of which is located at a different organizational level: General data (client) FI data (company code) Sales data (sales area)All company codes can use the data on the client level. The customer account number is assigned on the company code level. This means that from a financial view, the same customer has a specific accounts receivable number in all company codes. Other types of master data are assigned to other organizational elements.

    Unit 2: SAP ERP Basics and Navigation

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  • Material Master Example of Master Data

    Figure 19: Material Master Example of Master Data

    The material master contains the information that a company needs to manage a type of material. The material master defines how a product is sold, manufactured, purchased, inventoried, and costed. The information in the material master is grouped into views that are organized by business function.

    Lesson: Defining System-Wide Concepts

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  • Personnel Record Example of Master Data

    Figure 20: Personnel Record Example of Master Data

    SAP ERP Human Capital Management (SAP ERP HCM) enables you to quickly and efficiently map your current organizational and reporting structure with its organizational objects. The organizational objects include organizational units, jobs, positions, and tasks.

    Unit 2: SAP ERP Basics and Navigation

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  • Transactions

    Figure 21: Transactions

    Transactions are application programs that execute business processes in the SAP ERP system. Whenever possible, master data is copied during transaction processing to avoid reentry of data. For example, when you execute the Create Sales Order transaction, you must enter the customer master number. This number is copied into all the relevant customer information. Similarly, when you enter the material master numbers for the items being ordered, the relevant material data is copied into the sales order.In addition, when performing each transaction, you must enter the applicable organizational units. For example, when you specify the sales organization information, the appropriate sales organization and sales statistics are updated. Similarly, the designation of the plant and storage location determines the location for product sourcing.When you execute a business process transaction in the system and save it, a document is created. This document is a record of the transaction, and contains all the predefined information from the master data and organizational elements.A document is generated for each business process transaction carried out in SAP ERP.

    Lesson: Defining System-Wide Concepts

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  • Reporting Solutions in SAP ERP

    Figure 22: Reporting and Analytics

    Information is created as a result of processing business transactions in SAP ERP Central Component. You can access this information in reports available in SAP ERP Central Component, or you can create your own report with information pulled from SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse.SAP List Viewer and ALV Grid Control

    Figure 23: SAP List Viewer and ALV Grid Control

    Unit 2: SAP ERP Basics and Navigation

    32 Copyright . All rights reserved.

  • SAP List Viewer and ALV grid control standardize and simplify the handling of lists in SAP systems. There is a uniform user interface and list format for lists that help you to avoid redundant functions. You can use ALV grid control not only in list displays (for example, the list of material documents) but also in other transactions (for example, purchase requisition).Not all lists use the full range of SAP List Viewer functions. Some lists offer special functions above the scope of SAP List Viewer. You can change the appearance and content of the lists using the layout (display variant) pushbutton.The key elements of SAP List Viewer and ALV grid control are as follows: Uniform design of all lists and tables Cross-application and standardized function with uniform icons Creation and modification of layouts

    Note:For more information on SAP List Viewer and ALV grid control, refer to the SAP Library under Introduction to the SAP system Working with the SAP GUI Lists.

    Logistics Information System (LIS)

    Figure 24: Logistics Information System (LIS)

    The LIS offers a range of application-related (modular) information systems. All information systems have a standard interface and provide similar basic functions. At the same time, the modular structure also caters to special aspects in each information system.The type of data retention is identical in all information systems within the LIS. A number of special tools and working methods underscore the typical character of a data warehouse in the LIS.

    Lesson: Defining System-Wide Concepts

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  • In the LIS, you can distinguish between the following information systems: Sales Information System (SIS) Purchasing Information System (PURCHIS) Inventory Controlling (INVCO) Warehouse Management Information System (WMIS) Shop Floor Information System (SFIS) Quality Management Information System (QMIS) Plant Maintenance Information System (PMIS) Retail Information System (RIS)Reporting in LIS

    Figure 25: Reporting in LIS

    The key features of standard analyses are as follows: Standard analyses provide comprehensive data evaluation op

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