Unit 10: Soil Water Properties Chapter 3. Objectives Properties of soil/water that help w/ water retention Measurement of soil water Amounts of water.
Post on 25-Dec-2015
<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Unit 10: Soil Water Properties Chapter 3 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Objectives Properties of soil/water that help w/ water retention Measurement of soil water Amounts of water held, why is/not held Characteristics of soil water flow Effects of saturated, unsaturated soils Environmental affects Improving water-use efficiency </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Introduction Most common limit of plant growth Irrigation has made more land productive Many roles for water in the soil </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Water Chemistry Peculiar properties of water Molecule so small, it should be a gas Highest vaporization temp Solid phase less dense than liquid High surface tension Greatest solute, solvent Water held in soil due to H bonds Bonding of water to solid particles = adhesion Bonding of water to water = cohesion </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Water Chemistry Strong adhesion/cohesion forces cause water films in soils to be held on soil particles More surface area of a soil > water held </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Soil Water Content Measuring Water Content Gravimetric method measure mass water content Sample weigh dry sample weight again Time depends on equipment Measures mass water content Can also measure soil water w/ volumetric water content </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Soil Water Content Gains & Losses of Water Measuring soil water volume can help in determining: Amount of irrigation water needed Amount of water evaporated Depth that rainfall/irrigation water will wet soil </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Soil Water Potential & Availability Free energy energy to do work Soil water has less potential to do work than water molecules in a pool of water Cant transport as many materials Soil Water Potential work the water can do as it moves from its present state to the reference state, which is the energy state of a pool of pure water at an elevation defined to be zero </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Soil Water Potential & Availability Water Potential Gradient & Water Flow Soil water moves in response to water potential gradient Water flows from areas of higher water potential (wetter areas) to areas of lower water potential (dryer areas) = unsaturated flow Explains waters ability to move upward w/ capillary action from a water table </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Soil Water Potential & Availability Water movement after rainfall or irrigation moves into & through a saturated soil by gravity Overrides ability of water to adsorb to soil Called saturated flow Soil Water Classification for Water Management Gravitational water water that drains freely through the soil by force of gravity </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Soil Water Potential & Availability Field Capacity measure of the greatest amount of water a soil can store under conditions of complete wetting followed by free drainage Full saturation minus water lost to drainage Difficult to determine average field capacity in field situations because water continues to drain & redistribute through soil following rain/irrigation </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Soil Water Potential & Availability Permanent wilting point water held at PWP held so tight that plants not able to extract it fast enough to meet their needs Partially explains temporary wilting (rolling) of corn recovery at night when water transpiration slows In conditions of true PWP plant probably wont recover, unless additional water added </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Soil Water Potential & Availability Plants, Wilting Point, & Available Water Plants vary in their abilities to extract soil water PWP - ~40-50% of field capacity Available water capacity amount of water that would be available to plants, if the soil were at field capacity Difference between FC & PWP </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Soil Water Potential & Availability Capillary water & Saturation Percentage Capillary water held tightly in small capillary pores by H bonding Water in minute tubes that will rise through soil matrix to needed areas Height of capillary rise inversely related to radius of the tube Smaller pore diameter, greater the movement </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Soil Water Potential & Availability Saturation percentage water content of the soil when all pores are filled with water ~ Double the amount of water at field capacity </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Soils as Water Reservoirs Water held as films on particle surfaces Large soil pores allow water to drain by gravity flow (sands, large aggregate soils) Small soil pores retain water by capillary action >clay & humus % >water storage ability Water held in clay soils, held very tightly Hold large amounts of water at FC & PWP </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Soils as Water Reservoirs Medium textured soils unique combination of have pores that hold large amounts of water, but not so tight that plants cant get it Largest available water capacity found in silt loams & other loamy soils Soil organic matter, compaction, types of clay affect available water capacity </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Methods of Determining Water Content or Potential Porous Blocks Can be used in the field to help w/ soil water measurement Bury at various depths Electrodes attached Assists w/ irrigation needs Capacitance Probes Neutron Probes Time Domain Reflectometry </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Methods of Determining Water Content or Potential Tensiometers Thermocouple Psychrometers All can perform specific soil water measurements Predict irrigation needs </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Water Flow Into & Through Soils Saturated Flow Water flow caused by gravity Infiltration water entering soil Rapid into large, continuous pores Reduced by anything w/ reduction in pore size Percolation water moving through the soil Can carry away dissolved nutrients & salts Leaching removal of soluble compounds in percolating water </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Water Flow Into & Through Soils Rate of water movement controls % of sand, silt, clay Which will infiltrate faster? Which will percolate slower? Which has highest leaching potential? Soil structure Organic matter improves soil structure, increases #/size of pores Depth of the soil to impervious layers Amount of water in the soil if soil is already wet/dry </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Water Flow Into & Through Soils Soil temp warm > cold Compaction can reduce pore space, decrease infiltration Permeability the amount of saturation in the root zone (top 60) that will affect the amount of water flowing through the soil profile Limited by least permeable layer in the soil Major factor in productivity of soil/suitability for development </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Water Flow Into & Through Soils Hydraulic conductivity commonly used indicator of permeability Permeability rates: Impermeable - </li> <li> Water Flow Into & Through Soils Moderate -.6 2.0/hr Moderately rapid 2-6/hr Soils > moderately rapid also not favorable for septic tank fields, wastewater irrigation doesnt filter well Rapid 6-20/hr Very rapid - >20/hr Unsaturated flow Water moves naturally from wetter drier areas Movement may not be downward </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Water Uptake by Plants Water Absorption Mechanisms of Plants Passive absorption caused by constant pull of water moving through plants Plant water lost by transpiration Drier air exerts more atmospheric pull on water, increases transpiration rates Root extension expansion/extension of roots into new areas in the soil ability to absorb new water as it is encountered </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Water Uptake by Plants Active absorption plant expends energy to absorb water Plant selects specific solubles to absorb Helps equalize osmotic potential Accounts for very small part of total water absorbed Absorption through leaf stomata plants can take in water from fog, rain, dew </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Water Uptake by Plants Depths of Water Extraction Most plant water extracted from shallow depths Depends on: Saturation of the soil Soil texture Plants Trees will go deep Grasses remain shallow Want to encourage roots to get water from deep soils more drought tolerant </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Water Uptake by Plants When Plants Need Water Most Visible symptoms of wilt damage already done Especially during critical growth periods (flowering to fertilization), rapid size increase Plants can wilt even when soils are sufficiently wet if climate is so hot that evapotranspiration rate > absorption rate </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Consumptive Use & Water Efficiency Evapotranspiration (ET) water lost by evaporation from soil & transpired through plants Occurs in dry, windy, warm conditions, soil surface moist Can involve a large amount of water </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Consumptive Use & Water Efficiency Water Use Efficiency (WUE) WUE transpiration + plant growth + evap from soil + drainage loss (to produce a unit dry plant wt) Ex. soybeans may use ~.5/d Want to encourage plant available water to maximize growth by reducing evap losses, excessive drainage losses Evap loss keep soil canopied (soybeans) Drainage loss proper drainage through fields, waterways, terracing, etc. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Reducing Water Loss Reducing Evapotranspiration Mulches Straw, peat, gravel, etc. Barriers to moisture moving out of soil Keep soil temp cooler Long dry periods doesnt necessarily decrease amount of water lost (can actually increase if mulch wicks moisture from ground) </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Reducing Water Loss Fallow Common in dryland farming Leave land unplanted in alternating years to accumulate extra soil water Amount of water saved is small, but enough to justify Ex - ~4 water needed to produce wheat from seed to maturity Each additional 1 available water increase yield 4-7 bu/ac </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Reducing Water Loss Reducing Waste & Runoff Plant selection should carefully match soils water characteristics or conserve soil water Some research into converting brushland to grasslands to help conserve soil water Grasses root less deeply than brush Grasses go dormant earlier in fall Grasses intercept less precipitation, more water infiltrates soil </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Reducing Water Loss More protection from soil erosion Found to conserve >2 more water/yr Forests transpire much water Also intercept rain thats allowed to evaporate before it can reach soil Still cant clear-cut all forests What consequences would there be? </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Reducing Water Loss Improved irrigation Closely manage irrigation systems w/ better water controls Drip irrigation most efficient use of water, sprinkler irrigation least Reuse of Wastewater Municipal treatment plants, industry, irrigation tailwater Can be high in salts/sediment Much can be available </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Reducing Water Loss Conservation terraces Slow water runoff Catch basins to collect water Soil organic matter Positive impact on PWP Increased organic matter %, increases ability of water to store water </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Assignment </li> </ul>
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