understanding news geography and major determinants of global news coverage of disasters

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Presented at Computation + Journalism Symposium 2014 (http://symposium2014.computation-and-journalism.com).

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  • 1. UnderstandingNewsGeographyandMajorDeterminantsofGlobalNewsCoverageofDisastersJisunAnandHaewoonKwakQatarComputingResearchInstitute(QCRI)C+JSymposium2014

2. Suckedintoahole 3. 10most-readnewsatBBCon17thOct2014CelebrityTechnologyEnvironmentLocalnews 4. 10most-readnewsatBBCon17thOct20145outof10most-readnewsarticlesareaboutforeigndisasters. 5. Newsoutletskeepreportingforeigndisasters. 6. Inaprocessofglobalisation,aforeigndisastercanhaveapoliticaloreconomicalimpact. 7. Suchemotionalnewsraisesympathyforotherswhichcanbeakeytodrivemoreaudiencetothenewssites. 8. Peoplesufferedfromthosedisasterswaitforaglobalaidtoberecovered. 9. Whichdisastersreceivemoreattentionfromforeignnewsmedia? 10. Theoryofnewsworthiness Proposed by Galtung and Ruge, 1965 Frequency, intensity, unambiguity, meaningfulness,consonance, unexpectedness, and continuity of anevent Some characteristics of an actor (e.g. identity)involved in the event 11. EffectofnationalattributesA guest country(where a disaster happens)A host country(where news media exists) 12. EffectofnationalattributesA guest country(where a disaster happens)Population, degreeof press freedom,geographic size,economic power, etcA host country(where news media exists)National traits 13. EffectofnationalattributesA guest country(where a disaster happens)Population, degreeof press freedom,geographic size,economic power, etcA host country(where news media exists)National traitsRelatednessGeographic distance,shared language,volume of trade,past colonial ties 14. Awiderangeofnationalattributesandpowerrelationshiphasbeenexamined,butresultsareinconsistent,mainlyduetoculturaldifference. 15. Awiderangeofnationalattributesandpowerrelationshiphasbeenexamined,butresultsareinconsistent,mainlyduetoculturaldifference.internationalcoveragenewsExaminedaincountrysingle 16. Whichdisastersaremostlikelytobegloballycovered? 17. whynewsaboutdisasters? 18. GDELTdataset3,574,627events(666,150naturalandman-madedisasters)happeningin205countriesfromApril2013toJuly2014NewsgeographyWhichcountriesarepresentedinonecountryinternationaldisasternewsandtowhatextent?GlobalnewscoverageWhichdisastersaremostlikelytobegloballycovered? 19. GDELTdataset3,574,627events(666,150naturalandman-madedisasters)happeningin205countriesfromApril2013toJuly2014NewsgeographyWhichcountriesarepresentedinonecountryinternationaldisasternewsandtowhatextent?GlobalnewscoverageWhichdisastersaremostlikelytobegloballycovered 20. GDELTdataset monitorstheworld'snewsmediainprint,broadcast,andwebformats,inover100languages compilesalistofeveryperson,organization,location,themes(events),etc.fromeverynewsreport stretchesbacktoJanuary1,1979andupdatedaily leveragesGoogleTranslateforResearchtoaugmenthumantranslation 21. Example47Jihadistswerekilledwasfoundintendifferentarticlesthatday NumArts=10, CountType=KILL, Count=47, ObjectType=jihadists, 22. Fields DATE NUMARTS COUNTTYPE- AFFECT,ARREST,KIDNAP,KILL,PROTEST,SEIZE,WOUND.. COUNTS THEMES- NATURALDISASTER,MANMADEDISASTER, LOCATIONS OBJECTIVE- Christianmissionariesfrom20Christianmissionarieswerearrested SOURCEURLS 23. Inferring the country ofnews media by alexa.com 24. GDELT3,574,627events(666,150naturalandman-madedisasters)happeningin205countriesfromApril2013toJuly2014NewsgeographyWhichcountriesarepresentedinonecountryinternationaldisasternewsandtowhatextent?GlobalnewscoverageWhichdisastersaremostlikelytobegloballycovered 25. Whichcountriesarepresentedinonecountryinternationaldisasternewsandtowhatextent? 26. Examplesofcartogram 27. NewsgeographyseenbyNorthAmerica 28. NorthAmericaSouthAsia 29. StrongregionalisminreportingforeigndisastersAllcoefficientsarepositive,butlessthan0.5.Disasterscoveredbyeachregiondonotoverlapwithoneanother. 30. StrongregionalisminreportingforeigndisastersTheuniqueinterestofeachregionmakesitdifficultforresearchrelyingonasinglecountryorregiontoobtainexternalvalidity. 31. GDELT3,574,627events(666,150naturalandman-madedisasters)happeningin205countriesfromApril2013toJuly2014NewsgeographyWhichcountriesarepresentedinonecountryinternationaldisasternewsandtowhatextent?GlobalnewscoverageWhichdisastersaremostlikelytobegloballycovered? 32. Whichonewouldbemorelikelytobecoveredbymorecounties? 33. Whichonewouldbemorelikelytobecoveredbymorecounties?Ababykilledbyhermumor200peoplekilledbyfloodinginMalaysia 34. Whichonewouldbemorelikelytobecoveredbymorecounties?Ababykilledbyhermumor200peoplekilledbyfloodinginMalaysia 35. Whywouldonebecoveredmorethantheother?200peoplekilledbyfloodinginMalaysiaschoolgirls 36. Whywouldonebecoveredmorethantheother?200peoplekilledbyfloodinginMalaysia2000 schoolgirls 37. Whywouldonebecoveredmorethantheother?200peoplekilledbyfloodinginMalaysia2000 schoolgirls USA 38. Whywouldonebecoveredmorethantheother?200peoplekilledbyfloodinginMalaysia2000 schoolgirls USAWouldthisthengetmorecoverage? 39. DeterminantsofglobalnewscoverageWebuildahierarchical(mixed-effect)multipleregressionmodelwhereDependentvariable:Numberofcountriescoveringadisaster 40. DeterminantsofglobalnewscoverageWebuildahierarchical(mixed-effect)multipleregressionmodelwhereDependentvariable:NumberofcountriescoveringadisasterIndependentvariable:1) theattributesofanatione.g.,GDP,population,etc2) theattributesofadisastere.g.,disastertype,thenumberofaffectedpeople,etc3) logisticsofnewsgatheringe.g.,whetherINAsreportadisasterornot 41. CandidateindependentvariablesNationalvariables:GDP(grossdomesticproduct)percapita,GNI(grossnationalin-come)percapita,militaryexpenditure,population,landsize,populationdensity,merchandiseexports(US$),merchandiseimports(US$),numberofscientificjournalpublications,unemploymentrate,foreignaidreceived(US$),Internetuse(per100people),mobilecellularsubscriptions(per100people),homiciderate(per100,000people),indexofpressfreedom,theworldgivingindex,andthepoliticalstabilityindex.Disastervariables:adisastertype,afine-grainedsubtypeofadisaster,theunexpectednessofadisaster,thenumberofpeopleinvolvedinthedisaster,thetypeofpeoplesinvolvementinthedisaster(denotedascounttype),andthetypeofpeopleaffectedbythedisaster(denotedasobjecttype).Logisticofnewsgatheringvariable:onebinaryvariabletoshowwhetheradisasterisreportedbyanyofinternationalnewsagencies(AgenceFrance-Presse(AFP),AssociatedPress(AP)andReuters) 42. DeterminantsofglobalnewscoverageWebuildahierarchical(mixed-effect)multipleregressionmodelwhereDependentvariable:Numberofcountriescoveringadisaster14independentvariable:1) theattributesofanatione.g.,GDP,population,etc2) theattributesofadisastere.g.,disastertype,thenumberofaffectedpeople,etc3) logisticsofnewsgatheringe.g.,whetherINAsreportadisasterornot 1controlvariable:Acountryadisasterhappened 43. Disastersincountrieswithhighpopulationtendtobemoregloballycovered. 44. Disastershappeninginpoliticallyunstablecountriesreceivemoreglobalattention. 45. Themorepeoplekilledoraffectedbyadisaster,themorecountriesthedisasterwillbecoveredin. 46. Kidnapisoneofthedisastertypesthatgetsthemostattentionfromothercountries. 47. Sometypesofdisastersaremorelikelytobechosenthanothers.Forexample,AftershocksandFloodingtypestendtobereportedinmorecountriesthantheothertypes. 48. Threenationalvariables,whicharelog(population),mobilesubscription,politicalstability,explain3.1%ofthevariance. 49. DisastervariablesareaddedtothefirstmodelThecharacteristicsofadisasterthemselvesexplainanadditional4.3%ofthevariance. 50. INAscoveredexplainsanadditional18%ofthevariance! 51. Summary GDELT,avaluableresourcetostudynewsflowaroundtheworld Astrongregionalisminreportingdisasters AprominentroleofINAsinglobalnewscoverageofdisasters 52. FutureDirection 53. Wearekeentocollaboratewithyou!Thanks!@JisunAn@haewoonQatarComputingResearchInstitute(QCRI)