Understanding Mythology and Legends for Middle School Language Arts/Humanities Students

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Understanding Mythology and Legends for Middle School Language Arts/Humanities Students </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> When youre in the TERMS section, you may *Click* on young Hercules to return to the previous slide. *Click* on Excalibur to go to Part I, Part II, and Part III pathways of the Journey of the Hero </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Why think about the Journey of the Hero? Many great minds throughout history have studied what it means to be a hero. From the beginning of time, people have told fantastic tales of mythology, legends, fairy tales, and fables to help explain the origins of existence, the world, and our surroundings. These tales also help try to explain why people behave the way they do, and explain their actions and deeds. Sowhat does it mean to be a hero? </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Defining the Journey of the Hero In the Journey of the Hero, there are specific characteristics or traits that define this story or narrative. You might be surprised to find out that many of your favorite books or movies follow this story plotline or path. The hero/heroine is not just doing something for personal survival, but for others. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Key Terms: Click on the graphic to learn more about that term or phrase. Mythology HeroQuestArc of the Hero Cycle </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> What is Mythology? A man named Joseph Campbell spent years thinking about what makes a hero a hero, and why we as humans seem to need heroes in our stories and cultures. Based on his work, we have a greater understanding of what characteristics mythology and legends have throughout cultures and history. To watch a film about Joseph Campbell: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=227781013595028167deo.g oogle.com/videoplay?docid=227781013595028167 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Quest A quest is a journey in search of something, an object, or goal, or an idea, (such as peace). It is usually long and difficult. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Hero The main character leaves his or her community to go on an adventure, performing deeds that bring honor to the community (Herz and Gallo 121). </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> http://www.joshuadysart.com/journal/archives/herocyclediag.jpg </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Journey of the Hero On the Edge of Greatness! Click here to go to Part I: Departure Click here to go to Part II: Initiation Click here to go to Part III: The Return </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Part I: Departure/Separation The Call to Adventure The hero is just living a normal life, and receives some information that sends her off to the unknown, usually in search of something important, or saving something or someone. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Example Help me, Obi-Won Kenobi, youre my only hope. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Departure/Separation Refusal of the Call The hero, at first, doesnt want to do the task or deed he is asked to do; however, something unfortunate may happen to him, even if its just regret and a life of mediocrity. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Example Hercules kills his wife and children, due to madness caused by Hera (she caused a lot of problems). He would not have gone on his quests had it not been for this tragedy. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Departure/Separation Supernatural Aid The hero accepts the call, and encounters some protective, mystical figure, often an older person, who provides special tools, knowledge, gifts, or weaponry to help the hero in his tasks. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Examples Perseus receives a helmet from Hermes. Luke receives a light saber from Obi-Won Dorothy receives ruby slippers from Glenda </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Departure/Separation Crossing of the First Threshold The heroine must cross over into a world that is strange and unknown to her. Oftentimes there is a guardian or gate-keeper to guard the entryway. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Example Frodo Baggins must leave his Shire home to go where he has never been before. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Departure/Separation Belly of the Whale The hero/heroine may not go over a threshold, but go through this process instead Transformation, or the hero is shaken down, stripped of their former physical and mental selves </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Example When Dionysus, the god of the vine in Greek mythology, was a baby, Hera sends hungry Titans to devour him. Hestia, goddess of the hearth, saves him and he is reborn. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Part II: Initiation The Road of Trials The hero is now on his way. Hes been transformed, or crossed the threshold to a new and strange world. Now, he begins to encounter obstacles (people, objects, monsters) that hinder his path, and he must conquer all. There is usually unseen help (from a god/goddess, or other mystical being). The Twelve Labors of Hercules The Twelve Labors of Hercules </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Example In the Chinese legend of Mulan, she must learn to fight and train as a soldier, proving her stamina and worth. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Initiation Meeting of the Goddess/God On the road, the hero may meet a woman with whom he will have a unique bond. The woman may be his mother, sister, or another goddess, but through her, he receives support and energy. If its a female heroine, a male figure will be present. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Example In the Lord of the Rings trilogy, Galadriel guides Frodo and provides him with a token of protection. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Initiation The Tempter Someone who tries to get the hero distracted from his or her mission, or their quest; usually offers comfort, fun, riches, love, money, etc. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Example Calypso does her best to keep Odysseus by her side, and prevent him from his journey home. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Initiation Atonement with the Father The central character may meet a father figure character they must confront. This person is of high authority. Sometimes the father figure may be an ideal that the person holds as the ultimate authority. http://changingminds.org/disciplines/storytelling/plots/hero_journey/atonement_father.htm </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Example When Darth Vader confesses to Luke Skywalker that he is Lukes father. Luke isnt too happy about that. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Initiation Apotheosis Apotheosis means the highest point of glory, power, or importance. It may also mean the transformation into a deity, meaning a human becomes an immortal god or goddess. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Example Apotheosis occurs when Gandalf the Grey transforms to Gandalf the White. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Initiation The Ultimate Boon Boon means a gift or favor, or something that works like a blessing or benefit. This is the prize that the hero set out to get, and transforms his character. The hero is now ready to accept this, meaning, he can handle it now. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Example Perseus manages to get Medusa to part with her head </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Part III: The Return The Refusal of the Return Well, things are pretty wonderful in the new world the heroine has discovered, and she may not want to go back to her normal existence. This is the fulfillment of the promise and oath of the quest </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Example In the Disney version of Hercules, Hercules finds himself liking some of the glory and fame he finds as a half-mortal. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> The Return The Magic Flight There is a desperate, exciting, and usually high- speed chase back home with the boon. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Example In Bill and Teds Excellent Adventure, our protagonists make their way back home in the nick of time in a phone booth. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> The Return Rescue from Without The hero is saved from one final obstacle from a surprise source. It may or may not be someone he knows. Sometimes the plucking from disaster comes from a god/goddess. The phrase from without means from without knowledge, or really, with surprise! </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Example Spoiler Alert! At the end of Prisoner of Azkaban, Harry is saved by a griffon, whom he encountered previously in the plot. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> The Return The Crossing of the Return Threshold The hero/heroine returns to the real world. Sometimes there is one more obstacle that is a remnant of the quest that also enters this world, and the hero must confront one more problem before the journey comes to a close. </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Example Luke must confront Darth Vader one final time </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> The Return Master of Two Worlds The hero feels comfortable in both the world of the divine and the world of humans. </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Example Spoiler Alert! At the end of Disneys version of Hercules, Megara and Hercules decide to live on Earth, but are welcomed with the Immortals, too. </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> The Return Freedom to Live The heroine gives the boon to her fellow man, and the story comes to resolution. </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Example Spoiler Alert! And they lived happily ever after! </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Resources/Image Links http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hero_with_a_Thousand_Faces http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Herakles/ http://darmano.typepad.com/logic_emotion/images/2007/08/08/hero_2.jpg http://www.arnoldbocklin.com/ab_medusa.htm http://ll-images.veoh.com/image.out?imageId=user-NPTFlea13.jpg http://z.about.com/d/ancienthistory/1/0/U/F/PerseusHat.jpg http://www.mjtstages.com/summer.php Note: some image links are hyperlinked per image. </li> </ul>