Understanding Baking the Art and Science of Baking

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Once you understand the science you can more easily create your own recipes and become a master baker.

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<ul><li><p>J O H N W I L E Y &amp; S O N S , I N C .</p><p>Understanding</p><p>BAKINGT H I R D E D I T I O N</p><p>T H E A R T A N D S C I E N C E O F B A K I N G</p><p>J O S E P H A M E N D O L A</p><p>N I C O L E R E E S</p></li><li><p>Interior design by Vertigo Design, NYCChapter opening art by Carolyn Vibbert</p><p>This book is printed on acid-free paper. </p><p>Copyright 2003 by John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>Published by John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New JerseyPublished simultaneously in Canada.</p><p>No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy-ing, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior writtenpermission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appro-priate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 RosewoodDrive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web atwww.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be ad-dressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc., 111 RiverStreet, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, e-mail: permco-ordinator@wiley.com.</p><p>Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and authorhave used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representa-tions or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contentsof this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantabil-ity or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extendedby sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies con-tained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with aprofessional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liablefor any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not lim-ited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.</p><p>For general information on our other products and services or for technical sup-port, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at(800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.</p><p>Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some contentthat appears in print may not be available in electronic books.</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>Amendola, Joseph.Understanding baking : the art and science of baking / Joseph Amendola,</p><p>Nicole Rees.3rd ed.p. cm.</p><p>Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-471-40546-9 (pbk. : alk. paper)</p><p>1. Baking. I. Rees, Nicole. II. Title.</p><p>TX683 .A45 2002641.8'15dc21 2002028887</p><p>Printed in the United States of America.</p><p>10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p></li><li><p>C O N T E N T S</p><p>Acknowledgments v</p><p>Preface vii</p><p>C H A P T E R 1 Wheat and Grain Flours 1</p><p>C H A P T E R 2 Yeast and Chemical Leaveners 33</p><p>C H A P T E R 3 Sugar and Other Sweeteners 47</p><p>C H A P T E R 4 Eggs 65</p><p>C H A P T E R 5 Fats and Oils 77</p><p>C H A P T E R 6 Milk and Dairy Products 89</p><p>C H A P T E R 7 Thickeners: Starches, Gelatin, and Gums 101</p><p>C H A P T E R 8 Chocolate 113</p><p>C H A P T E R 9 Water 129</p><p>C H A P T E R 1 0 Salt 135</p><p>C H A P T E R 1 1 The Physics of Heat 141</p><p>C H A P T E R 1 2 Bread and Other Yeast-Risen Products 151</p><p>C H A P T E R 1 3 Laminates 175</p><p>C H A P T E R 1 4 Cake Baking 187</p><p>C H A P T E R 1 5 Egg Cookery: Custards, Souffls, Meringues, </p><p>Buttercream, and Pte Choux 207</p><p>C H A P T E R 1 6 Pies and Tarts 223</p><p>C H A P T E R 1 7 Cookies 237</p><p>C H A P T E R 1 8 Sugar Syrups and Candymaking 247</p><p>Appendix 259</p><p>High-Altitude Baking 259</p><p>Metric Conversions and Other Helpful Information 260</p><p>Weight-Volume Equivalents for Common Ingredients 262</p><p>Bibliography 267</p><p>Index 273</p></li><li><p>I am indebted to the writers, pastry chefs, and food scientists whosework has educated and inspired me. Lisa Montenegro, my pastry instructor, taught me the techniques and science that would be myfoundation. Tish Boyle and Tim Moriarty, editors of Chocolatier andPastry Art &amp; Design, have given me unwavering support and guidancethroughout my career. I would also like to thank my editor, PamChirls, for her enthusiasm for this project.</p><p>Many people have endured my obsessive baking habit over the pastdecade. During my tenure at Womans World and First for Women maga-zines, colleagues helpfully served as critics for my efforts. MichelleDavis had the presence of mind to end the reign of chocolate cake ter-ror. Sean Smith, friend and one-time husband, supported seeminglypointless baking experiment after baking experiment and explained tedious chemistry principles with great patience.</p><p>This revision of this book, and the Bakers Manual, would not havebeen possible without the help of Lisa Bell. Lisa was my pastry mentorand now she is my business partner. She helped research, develop, fine-tune, and edit these books, generously donating recipes and expertise.The chapters on flour and breadmaking were her gift to this project,and reflect up-to-date and comprehensive research. This project reju-venated our enthusiasm for pastry, shifting our interests from publish-ing to having our own bakery. Working with someone as talented as sheis has been the highlight of my baking career.</p><p>Many food companies and professionals have been generous withinformationKing Arthur Flour, Guittard Chocolates, Knox Gelatin,Red Star Yeast, and General Mills are among them. Tim Healea of PearlBakery in Portland, Oregon, provided valuable information regardingpre-ferments and wild yeast starters. The American Baking Instituteproved to be an indispensable resource. I have also drawn informationfrom articles I wrote for Pastry Art &amp; Design magazine.</p><p>Nicole Rees</p><p>A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S</p></li><li><p>When first published, Understanding Baking was one of the few re-sources available to the common professional baker that seriously at-tempted to address the science behind the bakery recipe, be it chemistry,physics, or biology. This edition has been thoroughly revised, main-taining that original intent, but with several new goals in mind.</p><p>The first, obviously, was to update and expand the scientific mate-rial. Newer ingredients such as osmotolerant instant active dry yeast areclearly defined, while discussions of staple ingredients such as choco-late are expanded to reflect changes in manufacturing and usage.</p><p>Second, products and production methods have been updated to re-flect current trends. When Understanding Baking first emerged, a pri-mary concern of the baking industry and hence, the young baker, wasthe mastery of large-scale production. Automated equipment, mixes,and time-saving methods were regarded with enthusiasm as the way of the future, liberating the baker from round-the-clock toil. And, to-day, in a bit of mixed blessing, most of the baked goods consumed inAmerica do indeed come from large, state-of-the-art industrial plants.However, certain very popular movements in modern pastry andbreadmaking seem to be heading, not forward into some brave newworld of baking, but backward toward craft, quality ingredients, anduncompromised flavor. The artisanal bread movement that currentlyhas the entire nation enthralled is a key example of this trend. Evenlarge supermarket chains are rushing to produce their own specialtybreads to cash in on the cachet of artisan. The old ways are back bypopular demandupscale coffeehouses, specialty bakeries, and restau-rants boasting quality local ingredients have crept into almost everytown.</p><p>Our final goal, in this era of television celebrity chefs and vast num-bers of magazines devoted to food and fine living, is to make Under-standing Baking accessible to a wider audience. Todays culinarystudents anticipate working in restaurants, bakeries, or even as self-employed caterers or personal chefs. This edition of UnderstandingBaking is meant to be a handbook for all those rookie bakers, as well asa reference for enthusiasts. Whether your lemon meringue pie beginsto weep or you need to review the list of foods that prevent gelatin fromsetting up, Understanding Baking is an easy-to-use reference for thepastry kitchen. Talented and curious amateurs with a desire to under-</p><p>P R E FA C E</p></li><li><p>stand the hows and whys can come away (after study and practice, ofcourse!) with good technical skills and the wherewithal to modifyrecipes for specific ends. Understanding how ingredients interact inthe processes of mixing and baking, and why certain proportions andratios are successful in recipes, means you wont ever be limited torecipes found in books.</p><p>In the spirit of the original edition, the text has been kept short and,we hope, succinct. Like the previous edition, this book relies heavily onE. J. Pylers two-volume tome, Baking Science &amp; Technology. ThoughPylers work addresses the complex chemistry of large-scale industrialbaking, it summarizes many studies of specific ingredients and pro-cesses, providing detailed explanations of the chemistry behind baking.</p><p>viii Preface</p></li><li><p>CH</p><p>AP</p><p>TE</p><p>R 1</p><p>W H E AT A N D G R A I N F L O U R S</p></li><li><p>Any discussion of baking must begin with its most elemen-tal ingredient: wheat flour. Not only is wheat the heart and soul ofbread but its special properties allow bakers to produce an astonishingarray of products, from pastry to cakes and cookies. This will be thelongest chapter in the book, as understanding this primary ingredientis vital to baking.</p><p>Wheat (and to a much lesser extent rye) flours do one thing ex-tremely well that the flours of other grains cannot: create a gluten net-work. Gluten is the substance formed when two proteins present inflour, glutenin and gliadin, are mixed with water. Gluten is both plas-tic and elastic. It can stretch and expand without easily breaking. Agluten structure allows dough to hold steam or expanding air bubbles,so that yeasted dough can rise and puff pastry can puff.</p><p>As with many discoveries, the domestication of wheat and the mak-ing of risen bread was as much accident as intent. A truly remarkableseries of fortuitous, mutually beneficial interactions between wheatand humankind helped to guarantee the success of both species.</p><p>D O M E S T I C AT I O N</p><p>Todays wheat is descended from wild grasses. Our hunter-gatherer ancestors certainly supplemented their diets with large-seeded wildwheat grasses for thousands of years, perhaps even cultivating thestands sporadically. Necessity, however, seems to have been the impetus</p><p>3</p></li><li><p>for domestication of these wild grasses. A climatic shift about 10,000years ago in the southern Levant (modern Jordan and Israel) broughtwarm, dry summers. Heat-resistant adaptive grasses thrived as othervegetable food sources diminished. Humans harvested the grasses morefrequently, especially favoring the large-seeded, nutrient-packed wildwheats like einkorn and emmer.</p><p>Wild wheats are self-sowing. That is, the upper portion of the grassstem that bears the seeds, the rachis, becomes brittle upon maturity. Itbreaks apart easily in a good breeze or upon contact, scattering the seedsthat will become next years plants. Archeologists and agricultural sci-entists theorize that when humans gathered the wheat, most of theseeds fell to the ground. The seeds that made it home, attached by anunusually tough rachis, were mutants. Inadvertently, humans selectedwheat that would not have survived natural selection: If the stem andkernels remain stubbornly intact, the grass is no longer self-sowing.Perhaps this new wheat was easier to transport back to camp in quan-tity, meaning a bit of leftover grain could then be planted convenientlyclose by. In a span of what archeologists estimate to be less than thirtyyears, humans and this now co-dependent strain of wheat set up house-keeping. Hunter-gatherers became farmers.</p><p>T R A N S F O R M AT I O N</p><p>Further selection by the farmer, combined with accidental crosses withwild grasses and new mutations, soon produced new wheat varieties.Selection continued to occur not only for obvious boons like biggerkernels and greater yields but also for ease of processing. The advent ofa free-threshing wheat, where the seed or kernel separates relativelyeasily from the husk by mere agitation, was a critical step in the evolu-tion toward bread wheat. Previously, parchingor heating the grainon a hot stonewas a favored method for removing the tightly at-tached husk from the kernel. The more palatable naked kernels werethen softened in boiling water and the resulting gruel was eaten plainor baked later into flatbreads. And flat was most likely the name of the game: Parching at least partially denatures or cooks the gluten-</p><p>4 Understanding Baking</p></li><li><p>forming proteins in wheat, as well as destroys critical enzymes thathelp yeast convert sugar into starch. With free-threshing wheat, rawwheat kernels sans husk could be dried and ground, and the resultingflour had the potential to consistently produce risen loaves.</p><p>Wild yeasts had probably colonized grain pastes on occasion, but itwas the availability of a wheat flour that could form a gluten networkwhich made leavened bread feasible. The baker could replicate yester-days loaf by saving a bit of the old risen dough to use as leavening forthe next days batch. The risen loaves had an appealing texture andaroma, as well as providing a more easily digestible form of nutrients.The Egyptians were using baked loaves of risen bread to start the fer-mentation process in beer by 5000 B.C.E. The brewerys use of maltedgrain (usually barley or wheat, sprouted and then lightly toasted) in thebeer ferment (wort) attracted the species of yeasts and their symbioticbacteria that produce bread humans find most appealing. The yeastydregs of the beer provided bakers with a reliable, predictable yeast va-riety that is the ancestor of commercial yeast used today. The species ofwheat we refer to as bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, was the most fa-vored grain throughout the Roman Empire. During the Dark Ages andup until the nineteenth century, wheat waned a bit, perhaps because itrequired more effort and time than its more self-sufficient cousins likerye and oats. Wheat returned to preeminent stature early in the twenti-eth century.</p><p>M O D E R N W H E AT</p><p>Wheat is the second largest cereal crop in the United States; corn, withits myriad uses in industrial food and even nonfood applications, ranksfirst. Worldwide, however, wheat or rice, depending on the region, isthe dominant food grain. It is wheats gluten-forming proteins, so in-extricably linked with the development of baking, that, when com-bined with a willingness to adapt to new environments and newdemands, help to explain its enormous popularity. It grows well over awide range of moderate temperatures. It is relatively easy to cultivateand consistently produces high crop yields. The wheat kernel has high</p><p>Wheat and Grain Flours 5</p></li><li><p>nutritional value and good keeping qualities. Wheat can be processedwith very little waste; what is not sold as flour is us...</p></li></ul>