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  • Slide 1
  • Understand that scholarly writing is argumentation Understand several rules for successful scholarly writing Understand how articles are structured (6 parts) Understand key organizational patterns for lit review Distinguish and explain the 3 common justifications for research articles Big Ideas Chapter 5 As a result of your readings and our class discussion this week you should have a basic understanding of and be able to explain the following:
  • Slide 2
  • Research Question Hypotheses A WORKING MODEL OF COMMUNICATION RESEARCH Narrow focus Identify topic STEP 1: CONCEPTUALIZATION Review of Literature STEP 2: PLANNING & DESIGNING Which Method? STEP 4: ANALYZE & INTERPRET DATA Report / Write STEP 5: RECONCEPTUALIZATION STEP 3: SELECTING A METHODOLOGY Operationalizaton Measurement Techniques Define Key Concepts
  • Slide 3
  • Big Picture The Forest & some of its trees... Topic selection Research questions and hypotheses Conceptual and operational definitions Literature review organization/structure Making an argument with literature/research Justification (p. 152, Reinard)
  • Slide 4
  • OVERVIEW OF SCHOLARLY WRITING more than just legal writing--an argument! Inductive and Deductive based on the work of other scholars/researchers using precise words (jargon, word choice)words advice for effective writing (common errors?) revising and editing written work (beautiful?)beautiful? Example in book? (scholarly v. creative) Why does effective writing in Com courses matter? How about these? more errorsmore errors Its and Its There and Their Your and youre Run-on sentences If it waswere Not using transitions or connectors active voice The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and the lightning bug. - Mark Twain Avoid overstatements Avoid unsupportable generalizations Avoid slang/cliches/colloquialisms Keep the language direct, simple
  • Slide 5
  • The Research Code Researchers make claims in form of contingent statements Defined: Claims that can be shown to be either true or false Example: TV news broadcasts feature more stories about the civil rights movement than about the women's movement Example: Sources with high credibility produce more attitude change than sources with low credibility Example: This month is October
  • Slide 6
  • CLAIM: states what you want readers to believe. e.g., It must have rained last night. e.g., You should be checked for diabetes. EVIDENCE (or GROUNDS): the reasons they should believe it. e.g., because the streets are wet. e.g., because your glucometer reading is 200.
  • Slide 7
  • CLAIM: Sense of community will be higher for female students than male undergraduate students EVIDENCE: Extensive psychological literature on gender differences in attitudes, values and beliefs, particularly in social/interpersonal styles and motives (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974; Deaux, 1984; Eisenberg & Lennon, 1983)
  • Slide 8
  • WARRANT: a general principle, assumption or premise that bridges the claim and its evidence; whether your claim can be inferred from your evidence. e.g., Whenever we see the evidence of wet streets in the morning, we can conclude that it probably rained last night. e.g., You should be checked by your doctor (claim) because your reading is 200 (evidence). [Why? the warrant] Whenever someone has a reading of more than 120, thats a good sign a person may have diabetes.]
  • Slide 9
  • QUALIFICATIONS: limit the certainty of your conclusions, stipulate the conditions in which your claim holds, address your readers potential objections (and make you appear a judicious, cautious, thoughtful writer). e.g., Your reading is 200 (evidence) so you should be checked (claim) [because that much glucose in the blood is a good sign that you may (qualification) have diabetes (warrant)] unless of course, you just ate something sugary (qualification).
  • Slide 10
  • From The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb,and Joseph M. Williams. University of Chicago Press:Chicago, IL. (1995).
  • Slide 11
  • Research Article Format Title Abstract Introduction Statement of the Problem/Hypotheses Review of Literature What is known? How does my Q. Relate? Why select my method? Method May include statement of problem/hypotheses Results Discussion AND Context of the problem AND Justification OR Statement of Problem OR Hypotheses SubjectsSampleProcedure References Define?Data Draw conclusions Interpret results Significance Limits Future Research
  • Slide 12
  • Organizing Your Research Immunity from.....
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Chronological Research into the reasons why individuals use mass media dates back more than 50 years. Early forms of gratifications research attempted to understand why people used certain media content. In the process, it explored the functions of the media and the role of the audiences' needs and expectations (e.g., Herzog, 1940; Lazarsfeld & Stanton, 1941; Lazarsfeld & Stanton, 1949). These early studies preceded any formal conceptualization of the uses and gratifications paradigm later proposed by Katz, Blumler and Gurevitch (1974) and Rosengren (1974). Instead of asking what effects the media have on individuals and collective audience behavior, the questions were, what are people seeking and what do they believe they are deriving from mass media? According to Katz (1959), "it is the program that asks the question, not 'What do the media do to people?,' but 'What do people do with the media?'" (p. 2).
  • Slide 15
  • Problem-Solution It is clear that building a learning community is necessary for successful faculty-student interactions and a sense of social presence in online courses (Gunawardena, 1994; Wiesenberg & Hutton, 1995; Campbell, 1997; Gunawardena, 1997; McLellan, 1999; Kazmer, 2000). Everhart (1999, p. 12) declares that overcoming a feeling of remoteness may be the greatest obstacle to distance learning and diminishing student attrition. In response, Kim (1998; 2000) suggests social scaffolding as a way to build community and overcome feelings of isolation and distance in online learning. According to Palloff and Pratt (1999), one way to scaffold is by using personal discussion folders that introduce students to one another. Additionally, Smith (2001) and Franklin (2002) demonstrated how instructors use of audio emails could build closeness and intimacy among learners in online courses.
  • Slide 16
  • Inductive It is clear that building a learning community is necessary for successful faculty-student interactions and a sense of social presence in online courses (Gunawardena, 1994; Wiesenberg & Hutton, 1995; Campbell, 1997; Gunawardena, 1997; McLellan, 1999; Kazmer, 2000). Clow (1999), Phillips and Peters (1999), Roblyer (1999) and Hacker and Wignall (1997) all concluded that sufficient interaction with instructors and other students was important based on their studies of the student perceptions of particular online college learning experiences
  • Slide 17
  • Deductive The contingency theory of leadership indicates that the context in which a leader operates is a significant factor that influences what is considered effective leadership (See Vroom & Yetton, 1973; Fielder; Brilhart; Hicks, 1990; Stogdill, 1974; Bass, 1981). The educational setting is a popular context investigated by researchers (Smith, 1978, Jones, 1983). Generally, however, early research into the educational context identified specific traits that were necessary for effective leadership typical of traditional men (Smelnof, 1969; Holmes, 1971). It was not until the 1970s, after the passage of equal opportunity legislation, that women leaders were seen as their own unique subset of the leadership literature, i.e., gender differences began to be recognized (Moore, 1999). Several recent doctoral dissertations have been written about the career development and leadership styles of women in senior academic positions. Meister (1991)... Davis (1996)... Sperling (1994) studied the... Roberts (1993)...
  • Slide 18
  • Inductive Researchers seem to disagree about the nature and quality of online communities. While many scholars argue that they promote greater self and collective growth and that harmony and inclusiveness are fostered (Cutler, 1996; Featherstone & Burrows, 1995; Jones, 1995), others argue that they are illusory (Robins, 1995; Meyrowitz, 1985; van Dijk, 1997; Ebersole & Woods, 2001) and fragmenting (Shields, 1996). Some argue that to succeed, distributed learning must balance virtual and direct interaction in sustaining communion among people (Dede, 1996, p. 19; Baker, 2000).
  • Slide 19
  • Problem-Solution The literature in media effects clearly demonstrates that violence viewed in television (Smith, 1999) and film (Jones, 2001) negatively affects children's behavior (Abel, 1982). Spindler and Rovai (1989) describe how parents can dramatically reduce the negative behavioral effects associated with TV violence through debriefing (p. 42). Similarly, Philbin (1990) and Greenleaf (1991) found that parents who view controversial television shows or other violent episodes with their children report far fewer negative behaviors from their children than those parents who do not view such shows with their children. Thus, parental involvement is a consistent factor in reducing the negative effects of violent television in a number of contexts.
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