Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid

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Singapore, Wen, LTA experience in underground construction

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<ul><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 1/69</p><p>IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012 1</p><p>Underground Construction</p><p>Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p>D Wen, BSc, PhDPE, PE(Geo), AC(Geo), CEng, MICE, MIEAust, CPEng</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 2/692IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p> Soil Investigation &amp; Interpretation</p><p> Maintenance</p><p>Interfaces Base Stability</p><p> Gaps in Retaining Walls</p><p> Buildings on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Underground Construction - Pitfalls to Avoid</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 3/693IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Soil Investigation &amp; Interpretation</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 4/694IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Soil Investigation &amp; Interpretation</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 5/695IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Interpreted Profile of Surface Wave Velocity</p><p>Interpreted Rock Profile</p><p>Soil Investigation &amp; Interpretation</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 6/696IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Soil Investigation &amp; Interpretation</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 7/697IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Maintenance</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 8/698IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Maintenance</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 9/699IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Maintenance</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 10/6910</p><p>IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Maintenance</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 11/6911</p><p>IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>TBM Launching</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 12/6912</p><p>IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>TBM Launching</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 13/6913</p><p>IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Braddell Road Proposed Depressed Road</p><p>TBM Launching</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 14/6914</p><p>IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>F1</p><p> 30m3 F1 sandsflowing into the</p><p>TBM launching</p><p>chamber through</p><p>the gap between</p><p>the TBM shield andthe shotcrete</p><p>support of the</p><p>launching</p><p>chamber.</p><p>Road closed foremergency repair.</p><p> CPT carried out to</p><p>confirm no cavities</p><p>under road.</p><p>TBM Launching</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 15/69</p><p>15IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>TBM Launching</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 16/69</p><p>16IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>TBM Launching or Docking</p><p> Ground treatment for TBM launching /</p><p>docking: TBM Length + One Ring Length</p><p> Quality control of ground treatment</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 17/69</p><p>17IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Interface between Stable &amp; Weak Soils</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 18/69</p><p>18IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>600mm of</p><p>settlement</p><p>on CTE</p><p>due to</p><p>DTSS</p><p>tunnelling</p><p>Interface between Stable &amp; Weak Soils</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 19/69</p><p>19IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p> Weak ground / strong, stable ground</p><p> Face pressure governed by overlying</p><p>weak ground</p><p>Interface between Stable &amp; Weak Soils</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 20/69</p><p>20IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>IDEALISED PROFILE IN GRANITE</p><p>Interface between Rock &amp; Soil</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 21/69</p><p>21IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Interface between Rock &amp; Soil</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 22/69</p><p>22IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Flushing of the annular gap</p><p>Water ingress</p><p>Limit of EPB Technology</p><p>Coarse granular</p><p>material / rocks</p><p>Insufficient fines to form</p><p>plastic plug</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 23/69</p><p>23IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Good EPB Spoil</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 24/69</p><p>24IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Difficult to Turn a Mixture of Cut Rock and Granular Spoil into EPB Spoil </p><p>May Be Unable to Maintain Target Pressure</p><p>Cut Rock &amp; Granular Spoil</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 25/69</p><p>25IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Interface between Rock &amp; Soil</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 26/69</p><p>26IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Interface between Rock &amp; Soil</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 27/69</p><p>27IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p> Mixed face of strong or very strong rock</p><p>with flowing or squeezing soils</p><p> Predominantly granular spoil</p><p> Need to have high face pressure, but spoil</p><p>does not readily form a plug in EPB</p><p>machines</p><p>Interface between Rock &amp; Soil</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 28/69</p><p>28IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Cutterhead Intervention</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 29/69</p><p>29IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Over-excavation by Slurry TBM</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 30/69</p><p>30IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Feeding Pipe</p><p>Discharge Pipe</p><p>Flow meterDensity meter</p><p>Excavation Management System</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 31/69</p><p>31IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Normal Excavation Condition Over Excavation Condition</p><p>Excavated</p><p>Qty(Cum)</p><p>Jack Stroke (m)</p><p>Theoretical</p><p>Value</p><p>Theoretical</p><p>Value</p><p>Jack Stroke (m)</p><p>Excavate</p><p>dQty(Cum)</p><p>Excavation Management System</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 32/69</p><p>32IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Base Stability of Excavation</p><p> Hydraulic uplift</p><p> D D</p><p>Uk1</p><p>k2</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 33/69</p><p>33IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Base Stability of Excavation</p><p>Example of hydraulic uplift failure reported by Davies (1984)</p><p> Hydraulic uplift</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 34/69</p><p>34IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Base Stability of Excavation</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 35/69</p><p>35IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Shaft Excavation</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 36/69</p><p>36IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Base Stability of Excavation</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 37/69</p><p>37IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Base Stability of Excavation</p><p>B St bilit f E ti</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 38/69</p><p>38IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Base Stability of Excavation</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 39/69</p><p>39IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Gaps in Retaining Walls</p><p> Soil stability in the gaps</p><p>marine clay squeezing through the gaps into</p><p>excavation, causing localized soil collapse</p><p> Large ground settlements at areas with</p><p>gaps in diaphragm walls</p><p> Water leaking through the gaps into the</p><p>excavation</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 40/69</p><p>40IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Gaps in Retaining Walls</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 41/69</p><p>41IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Gaps in Retaining Walls</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 42/69</p><p>42IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>-0</p><p>.085</p><p>-0</p><p>.085</p><p>-0</p><p>.085</p><p>-0</p><p>.085</p><p>-0</p><p>.085</p><p>-0.07-0.07-0.07-0.07-0.07</p><p>-0.07</p><p>-0.07</p><p>-0.07</p><p>-0.07</p><p>-0.07</p><p>-0.07</p><p>-0.07</p><p>-0.07</p><p>-0.07</p><p>-0.07</p><p>-0.065</p><p>-0.065</p><p>-0.065</p><p>-0.065</p><p>-0.065 -0.06</p><p>-0.06</p><p>-0.06</p><p>-0.06</p><p>-0.06</p><p>-0.</p><p>06</p><p>-0.</p><p>06</p><p>-0.</p><p>06</p><p>-0.0</p><p>6</p><p>-0.</p><p>06</p><p>-0.05</p><p>-0.05</p><p>-0.05-0.05</p><p>-0.05-0.045</p><p>-0.045</p><p>-0.045</p><p>-0.045</p><p>-0.045 -0.035</p><p>-0.035</p><p>-0.035</p><p>-0.035</p><p>-0.035</p><p> -0.03</p><p>-0.03</p><p>-0.03</p><p>-0.03</p><p>-0.03</p><p>-0.0</p><p>3</p><p>-0.0</p><p>3</p><p>-0.03</p><p>-0.0</p><p>3</p><p>-0.0</p><p>3</p><p>-0.03</p><p>-0.03</p><p>-0.03-0.03</p><p>-0.03</p><p>-0.025-0.025-0.025-0.025-0.025</p><p>.25</p><p>.25</p><p>.025</p><p>.25</p><p>.25</p><p>-0.025</p><p>-0.025</p><p>-0.025</p><p>-0.025</p><p>-0.025</p><p>-0.0</p><p>2</p><p>-0.0</p><p>2</p><p>-0.0</p><p>2</p><p>-0.0</p><p>2</p><p>-0.0</p><p>2</p><p>-0.</p><p>-0.</p><p>-0.0</p><p>-0.</p><p>-0.</p><p>-0.015</p><p>-0.015</p><p>-0.01</p><p>5</p><p>-0.015</p><p>-0.015</p><p>-0</p><p>.015</p><p>-0</p><p>.015</p><p>-0</p><p>.015</p><p>-0</p><p>.015</p><p>-0</p><p>.015</p><p>-0.01-0.01-0.01-0.01-0.01</p><p>-0.005-0.005-0.005-0.005-0.005</p><p>Gaps in Retaining Walls</p><p>G</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 43/69</p><p>43IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Ground level</p><p>Final excavation level</p><p>Underground services</p><p>Jet grouted piles to close</p><p>the gap in diaphragm wall</p><p>Untreated zones below the</p><p>service</p><p>Diaphragm wall</p><p>Gaps in Retaining Walls</p><p>G i R i i W ll</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 44/69</p><p>44IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Gaps in Retaining Walls</p><p>G i R t i i W ll</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 45/69</p><p>45IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>SandGrouts Gravelcoarse medium fine</p><p>Cement</p><p>Sodium silicate</p><p>Grain size (mm) 2 0.5 0.25 0.074</p><p>Groutability Based on Grout</p><p>Type vs Soil Particle Size</p><p>(after Henn, 1996)</p><p>Gaps in Retaining Walls</p><p>B ildi Mi d F d ti</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 46/69</p><p>46IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>UNIFORM</p><p>SETTLEMENT</p><p>UNIFORM TILT</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>B ildi Mi d F d ti</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 47/69</p><p>47IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Uniform Deformation: Not Damaging</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 48/69</p><p>48IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>BENDING SHEAR</p><p>Damaging Modes of Movement</p><p>HORIZONTAL</p><p>EXTENSION</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 49/69</p><p>49IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Adjacent buildings on different foundations: Old buildings on footings</p><p>butted against newer buildings on deep foundations.</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 50/69</p><p>50IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Settled by 107mmPiled</p><p>Building tilting away fromthe adjacent structure</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 51/69</p><p>51IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 52/69</p><p>52IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Annex structure</p><p>on footings</p><p>abutting buildings</p><p>on piles</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 53/69</p><p>53IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Main frame on piles, floor slab notsuspended</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 54/69</p><p>54IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>FILL (6.5m THICK)</p><p>SOFT MARINE CLAY</p><p>(33m THICK)</p><p>SANDY OLD ALLUVIUM</p><p>SETTLEMENTBuildings on Mixed</p><p>Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 55/69</p><p>55IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Slabs are suspended; columns</p><p>not suspended</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 56/69</p><p>56IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Walkway - piled</p><p>Main load bearing</p><p>column - shallow</p><p>foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 57/69</p><p>57IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Part of the building on piles and part on footings </p><p>Damaging at small differential settlements.</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 58/69</p><p>58IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 59/69</p><p>59IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Masjid Wak Tanjong</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 60/69</p><p>60IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Masjid Wak Tanjong</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 61/69</p><p>61IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Fill &amp; Organic clay Weathered Jurong Formation</p><p>No 7 No 9</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 62/69</p><p>62IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 63/69</p><p>63IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Party Wallto No 9</p><p>Shirlaw, Wen, Algeo &amp; Patterson-Kane (2003)</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 64/69</p><p>64IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Pocket of soft clay</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Oth I ith G d S ttl t</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 65/69</p><p>65IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Other Issues with Ground Settlement</p><p>Oth I ith G d S ttl t</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 66/69</p><p>66IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p>Other Issues with Ground Settlement</p><p>Do not forget service connections to buildings!</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 67/69</p><p>67IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p> To identify buildings on mixed foundations</p><p>- A&amp;A drawings</p><p> To identify locations of variation in</p><p>geology, in particular along terrace houses</p><p> A general walk around the site building</p><p>inspection</p><p>Building on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Underground Construction - Pitfalls to Avoid</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 68/69</p><p>68IEAust Singapore 12 Jan 2012</p><p> Soil Investigation &amp; Interpretation Maintenance</p><p> Interfaces</p><p> Base Stability</p><p> Gaps in Retaining Walls</p><p> Buildings on Mixed Foundations</p><p>Underground Construction - Pitfalls to Avoid</p></li><li><p>5/19/2018 Underground Construction Pitfalls to Avoid</p><p> 69/69</p><p>THANK YOU</p></li></ul>