uifsa – today & tomorrow
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DESCRIPTIONUIFSA – Today & Tomorrow. UIFSA? Tell me more!. Controlling Order The order that governs your case “Which” order is the enforceable order Continuing, Exclusive Jurisdiction (CEJ) “Which” jurisdiction has authority to modify the order. Which State Has CEJ?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
UIFSA Today & Tomorrow
UIFSA? Tell me more!Controlling OrderThe order that governs your caseWhich order is the enforceable order
Continuing, Exclusive Jurisdiction (CEJ)Which jurisdiction has authority to modify the order
Which State Has CEJ?CEJ rules very clear in UIFSA, section 205
CEJ = + Individual Party or Child
What if there is only one order?If there is onlyONE order for current support andObligor, obligee,or child lives in the state with the order thenThat is thecontrolling orderand that issuingtribunal hasCEJ .
What if only one order exists but all the parties have left the state?If there is onlyONE order for current support andNo party or childlives in the state with the order, thenThat is still thecontrolling orderBUT the issuing tribunal doesNOT have CEJ to modify theorder.
What if there are multiple orders?Section 207 of UIFSA has rules for determining the controlling order. The State that issued the controlling order has modification jurisdiction. If there is nocontrolling order, a state with jurisdiction over the non-requesting party must establish a new order.
Changes from 1996 to 2001 UIFSA
Determination of Controlling Order Jurisdiction Who can request and when it can occur Notice Findings consolidation of arrears
Why UIFSA 2008? Hague Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance Negotiated from 2003 2007
US Goals during Hague Negotiation Minimal burden on IV-D agencies
Procedures that produce results and are accessible, prompt, efficient, cost-effective, responsive, and fair
Cost-free services in international child support cases
Current Status of Ratification Convention is in Effect! Norway Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina
US Ratification in 2015?One can only hope!
What Needs to Happen? The Senate gave advice and consent to ratify the Convention on September 29, 2010. Congress must approve the implementing legislation. States must adopt UIFSA 2008. The President must deposit documentation with the Hague Conference on Private International Law ratifying the Convention.
Goals of UIFSA 2008 Implement the Hague Convention
Address international cases in general
Build upon UIFSA 2001*
* Hague Convention is not exclusive remedy for international case processing.
UIFSA 2001 already contained provisions re: bilateral agreementsUIFSA 2008 Drafting Committee
Status of Bilateral Agreements
The U.S. currently has bilateral reciprocity agreements with 14 countries and 12 Canadian Provinces.
Foreign Reciprocating CountriesAustraliaCanadian Provinces/TerritoriesAlberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Newfoundland/Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, YukonCzech RepublicEl SalvadorFinland*
Foreign Reciprocating Countries (contd)HungaryIrelandIsraelNetherlandsNorwayPolandPortugalnited*
Foreign Reciprocating Countries (contd)
Slovak RepublicSwitzerlandThe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland*
* With regard to international case processing -- UIFSA 1996 & 2001 also already contained provisions re: state reciprocity arrangements. AND a tribunal may recognize a foreign order on basis of comity. Some concepts CEJ and DCO do not fit neatly in international arena.UIFSA 2008 Drafting Committee
New Definition of Foreign Country
UIFSA 2001 incl. qualified foreign countries within definition of State
UIFSA 2008 has separate definition that incl. many, but not all, foreign nations:
A country, including a political subdivision thereof, other than the United States, that authorizes the issuance of support orders and:(A) has been declared under US law to be a foreign reciprocating country; (B) Has established a state reciprocal arrangement for child support; (C) Has law or procedures for the issuance and enforcement of support orders which are substantially similar to UIFSA procedures; or (D) In which the Convention is in force with respect to the United States.
State a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession under US jurisdiction. Term includes an Indian nation or tribe.
Road Map for International Cases Articles 1 thru 6 (UIFSA 2001+) apply to a support proceeding involving:A foreign support order;A foreign tribunal; orAn obligee, obligor, or child residing in a foreign country.
Articles 1 thru 6 may be applied by a tribunal recognizing and enforcing a foreign support order on basis of comity
New Article 7 applies only to Convention proceedings.
Establishment under UIFSA 2008
Business as usual
Enforcement under UIFSA 2008
Direct income withholding only for support orders issued by a state. No longer requires US employers to honor DIWs from foreign countries. Registration for enforcement is different if request for enforcement comes from a Hague country.
Registration for Enforcement Procedure for non-Hague Foreign Support Orders UIFSA 2001 Procedure for Hague Foreign Support Orders New Article 7 Major difference Documents Time frames Defenses
Required DocumentsNon-Hague Foreign SupportOrdersHague Foreign Support Orders
Transmittal letter Two copies of order, including 1 certified copy Sworn or certified statement of arrears Certain obligor & obligee information Name/address of person to whom support payments to be sent (if applicable)Request for DCO, if appropriate
Transmittal letter Complete text of order (or abstract by issuing tribunal) Record: order is enforceable in issuing country Record attesting to due process (if default order) Record: arrears and automatic adjustment of support Record of receipt of free legal assistance in issuing country (if necessary)
Time Frame to Contest Non-Hague Foreign Support Orders Within  days after notice of registration Hague Foreign Support Orders Not later than 30 days after notice of registration Not later than 60 days after notice if contesting party does not reside in US
Hague Foreign Support Orders
Recognition and enforcement of order is manifestly incompatible with public policy, including failure of issuing tribunal to observe minimum standards of due process;
Issuing tribunal lacked personal jurisdiction consistent with Section 201;
Order is not enforceable in issuing country;
If default order, there was a lack of due process re: notice & opportunity to be heard*
Non-Recognition of Hague Order
If a tribunal does not recognize a Convention support order becauseThere was a lack of personal jurisdictionThere was procedural fraudA proceeding between same parties with same purpose is pending before a tribunal of that state and that proceeding was filed firstThe order is a default order but the notice and opportunity to challenge did not satisfy due process *
Non-Recognition of Hague Order (contd)THEN the tribunal may not dismiss the proceeding without allowing a reasonable time for a party to request the establishment of a new Convention support order. and the [governmental entity] must take all appropriate measures to request a child-support order for the obligee if the application for recognition and enforcement was received through the Central Authority system.
Modification under UIFSA 2008 Adds provisions related to modification of order issued by a stateNC order, one party remains in US and other party is in a foreign country Includes provision related to modification of order issued by a foreign country Adds provision related to modification of order from a Hague country*
Resources Related to UIFSA TEMPO on DCO (IM-01-02) TEMPO on UIFSA 2001 (IM-03-01)www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/css
Official Act with Commentary Status of State Enactmentwww.uniformlaws.org
Resources-International Child SupportOCSE has published Caseworker Guides for specific FCR countries. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/css/international/
State Department has information on enforcing child support orders abroad. http://travel.state.gov/law/family_issues/support_issues/support_issues_582.html
NCSEA has FAQs on international child support enforcement. http://www.ncsea.org/resources-info/international-child-support/
The Hague Conference website has recommended forms for the Convention, Country Profiles, and a Caseworkers Guidewww.hcch.net
Margaret Campbell Haynes, Esq.Senior AssociateCenter for the Support of FamiliesCharlotte, NC email@example.com*