uhecrs & grbs eli waxman weizmann institute, israel

Download UHECRs & GRBs Eli Waxman Weizmann Institute, ISRAEL

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UHECRs & GRBs Eli Waxman Weizmann Institute, ISRAEL Slide 2 The acceleration challenge R B v v 2R t RF =R/ c) l =R/ 22 22 [Hillas, ARA&A (1984); Waxman 04] Slide 3 The suspects Active Galactic Nuclei (steady): ~ few requires L>10 47 erg/s Few, brightest AGN Gamma Ray Bursts (transient): ~ 300 requires L>10 51 erg/s Average L ~10 52 erg/s Slide 4 The Suspects losses 1/ [Hillas 84; Arisaka 02] Slide 5 Comments on Magnetars Newborn Neutron stars (Hypothesis) with: B~10 14 G, ~10 4 /sec L EM ~10 50 erg/s for t Afterglow: UHECR implications L =10 51 erg/s -> L =10 52 erg/s Early optical afterglow: u B /u e ~1, ~10 2.5 Revised rates, energy 10/Gpc 3 yr -> 0.5/Gpc 3 yr E =10 52 erg -> E =10 53.5 erg [Zhang,Kobayashi, Meszaros 03; Soderberg, Ramirez-Ruiz 03] [Schmidt 01; Guetta, Piran, Waxman 03] Slide 10 Proton/electron acceleration Protons Acceleration/expansion: Synchrotron losses: Particle spectrum: p energy production: Electrons MeV s: Optical depth: spectrum: energy production [Waxman 04] [Waxman 95] Afterglow 0.02 52 Slide 11 UHECR generation Galactic heavy nuclei X-Galactic protons X-Galactic protons Generation spectrum & rate (z evolution follows SFR): GRB Model Predictions >3x10 20 eV: Few, narrow spectrum sources; Fluctuations (no homogeneous GZK). Auger AGASA multiplets- statistical significance? [Miralda-Escude & Waxman 96] [Teshima 03; Finley & Westerhoff 04] [Watson 91, Cronin 93] Slide 15 Generic GRB s Weak dependence on model parameters [Waxman & Bahcall 97, 99; Rachen & Meszaros 98; Alvarez- Muniz & F. Halzen 99; Guetta, Spada & Waxman 01; Guetta, Hooper, Alvarez-Muniz, Halzen & E. Reuveni 04] Slide 16 Summary GRBs >10 19 eV protons (acceleration, rate) Predictions 10 3 km 2 area detectors experiments: HiRes, Auger, T.A., EUSO/OWL GRBs 100TeV s Flux 1Gton detectors Experiments: Baikal, AMANDA IceCube, Antares, Nestor, NEMO detection GRBs: CR puzzle, GRB progenitors & physics physics: appearance Lorentz Inv. (10 -16 ), Weak equivalence principle (10 -6 ) Slide 17 Direct size measurement: Scintillation Finite size, cosmological source: h crit. ~few x 10 17 cm nene d d > Diffractive scintillation h [Frail, Waxman & Kulkarni 00] Slide 18 Cannon balls Proper motion: D&D 2003: >1.4 mas for 030329 Obs.: 0.1+-0.1 Inconsistent with scintillation suppression [ Dado, Dar & De Rujula 02]