Überfischung: Ein weltweites Problem Dr. Rainer Froese IFM-GEOMAR Kiel

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  • berfischung: Ein weltweites ProblemDr. Rainer FroeseIFM-GEOMARKiel

  • Das `Runterfischen mariner Nahrungsnetze(Fishing Down Marine Food Webs, Pauly et al. Science 1998)

  • berfischung im Nordost-Atlantik(Froese & Pauly 2003)

  • (t/km2)Biomasse von Speisefischen im Jahr 1900 Christensen et al. 2003

  • und im Jahr 2000.Christensen et al. 2003

  • Es gab Leben am MeeresbodenBilder: Dr. K. Sainsbury, CSIROvorhernachher

  • Spuren der ZerstrungTypischer Meeresboden courtesy F. Grassle

  • Misswirtschaft in der OstseeManagement Empfehlung fr 2006: Erhhung des Fangs auf 28,400 t (+ 15%)!

  • Gre ist wichtig:Typische Lngenverteilung im Fang

    Chart5

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    1

    8

    25

    58

    45

    54

    79

    94

    88

    77

    55

    46

    42

    33

    42

    36

    38

    27

    47

    50

    53

    53

    43

    26

    25

    23

    12

    15

    4

    9

    3

    1

    2

    0

    1

    3

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Numbers

    Length (cm)

    Numbers

    Commercial Landings of Nile perch in 1982

    Sheet1

    Lates niloticus, comparison of length frequency samplesfrom Lake Victoria, given in Asila and Ogari 1988

    Nyanza Golf , February 1982Commercial, February 1982

    LengthNyanza 1982Nyanza 1982 %Commercial 1982Commercial 1982 %

    025100

    4222600

    8141400

    12290800

    16335900

    203811000

    24333910

    28275781

    322196252

    361855585

    401394454

    441173544

    481123796

    521263948

    561223887

    601243776

    641554555

    681384464

    72862423

    76752333

    80742423

    84501363

    88180383

    92120272

    9660474

    10000504

    10400534

    10800534

    11200434

    11600262

    12000252

    12400232

    12800121

    13200151

    1360040

    1400091

    1440030

    1480010

    1520020

    1560000

    1600010

    1640030

    1680000

    1720000

    1760000

    1800000

    1840000

    1880000

    1920000

    1960000

    2000000

    2040000

    2080000

    37601218

    Sheet2

    Sheet2

    0.664893617

    5.9042553191

    3.75

    7.7127659574

    8.9095744681

    10.1329787234

    8.8563829787

    7.3138297872

    5.8244680851

    4.920212766

    3.6968085106

    3.1117021277

    2.9787234043

    3.3510638298

    3.2446808511

    3.2978723404

    4.1223404255

    3.670212766

    2.2872340426

    1.9946808511

    1.9680851064

    1.329787234

    0.4787234043

    0.3191489362

    0.1595744681

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Nyanza Gulf, N = 3759

    Loo

    Lopt

    Lm male

    Lm female

    Nyanza 1982

    Length (cm TL)

    Frequency (%)

    Sheet5

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.0821018062

    0.6568144499

    2.052545156

    4.7619047619

    3.6945812808

    4.4334975369

    6.4860426929

    7.7175697865

    7.2249589491

    6.3218390805

    4.5155993432

    3.776683087

    3.4482758621

    2.7093596059

    3.4482758621

    2.9556650246

    3.1198686371

    2.2167487685

    3.8587848933

    4.105090312

    4.3513957307

    4.3513957307

    3.5303776683

    2.1346469622

    2.052545156

    1.8883415435

    0.9852216749

    1.2315270936

    0.328407225

    0.7389162562

    0.2463054187

    0.0821018062

    0.1642036125

    0

    0.0821018062

    0.2463054187

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Commercial fishery, N = 1218

    Loo

    Lopt

    Lm male

    Lm female

    Frequency (%)

    Sheet4

    Epinephelus sexfasciatus, Pauly book p. 60

    Linf30.9M1.12

    K0.51

    to-0.2

    Lm18.2Lg18.5

    Lopt18.849tg1.59

    a0.0265

    b2.9

    LengthNumberWeight totAge

    5514.10031746680.14610434350.99230454

    729216.98423828190.30368181376.866259308

    91141767.88496613860.475038327632.7021679973

    111614467.97296832740.662816572956.9947367938

    131436441.9542040960.870500923663.8799579281

    151188049.93794487821.102817793568.3772764076

    17615982.4293839671.366406556447.4866779431

    19506770.19723405851.6710152623

    21325792.04339464982.0318067191

    23174005.94995750092.4743008322

    2541200.41631796623.0466741823

    2741500.58562346683.8583914329

    Total73846210.456550798

    < 18.563126941.2640231558

    18.563179081.1990446525

    Survivors to 18.5 cm277.2993809179

    Surv. Weight at 18.534753.0388864145

    Potential catch54022.23141405670.169047775

    Sheet4

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Actual:N = 738Catch = 46 kg

    Potential:N = 384Catch = 54 kg+ 17%

    Linf

    Lopt

    Lm

    Number

    Sheet3

    Loo210a0.0077

    K0.13b3.1

    to-0.8

    M0.3

    Lm102tm4.4589879739

    Lopt119topt5.8036243153

    L>m110.5t>m5.1019627132

    LengthNumbersAgeSurvivors L>mS%S

    00-0.726388838300

    40-0.5770189471000.6020599913

    80-0.4246910449000.903089987

    120-0.2692856039001.079181246

    160-0.1106757024001.2041199827

    2000.05127359910098.47356201851.3010299957

    2410.2167059470.230944691187.459780376823.09446910493.70564209491.3802112417

    2880.38577446021.94368385312336.988642607624.296048163389.07136015221.4471580313

    32250.55864258216.397324048810765.033277436725.589296195384.56981543041.5051499783

    36580.7354850315.650450548335257.203979601326.983535428180.2000932011.5563025008

    40450.916488856312.820177958237305.772647548628.489284351775.96126422531.6020599913

    44541.101854637616.263960113859351.782041374530.118444655271.85238417851.6434526765

    48791.291797811425.1887730646112441.03379512531.884522866567.87249303641.6812412374

    52941.486550180531.7747205527169839.70789576733.80289420564.02061442141.7160033436

    56881.686361614431.5841838697198426.73088678835.891118033760.2957549051.748188027

    60771.891501976629.390373856213498.92262197138.169316696256.69690326011.7781512504

    64552.102263316522.3633479436185114.14899803440.660632624753.22302966121.806179974

    68462.318962370119.9602200137185802.8968968543.391782638549.87308482481.8325089127

    72422.541943422919.4853681222201538.65074649746.393733624446.64599908571.8573324964

    76332.77158160116.4018351476186422.33072438749.702530750343.54068140111.8808135923

    80423.008286667722.4113338116277053.06429648853.36031859940.55601827431.903089987

    84363.252507423920.6699788751275257.03331489557.416607986337.69087259111.9242792861

    88383.504736830323.5333460183334523.0910233261.92985794334.94408235561.9444826722

    92273.76551799718.0817555843271988.68384967566.969465127132.31445931551.9637878273

    96474.035451226334.1305936192538752.64799844472.618284296229.80078746291.982271233

    100504.315202335339.487923543648815.56795043478.975847086127.40182139322

    104534.605512550645.6661290642774844.89682491286.162507668225.11628450462.0170333393

    108534.907210344149.9921604842869128.35481576194.324831102322.94286701542.0334237555

    112435.221225686544.5663463342787706.120376044103.642665893520.88022377242.0492180227

    116265.548607335929.7280167133530027.368960183114.338525820618.92697182072.0644579892

    120255.890543971131.6725445234565127.197674745126.690178093417.08168769512.079181246

    124236.248390245232.4409812043574602.155804934141.047744366415.34290438992.0934216852

    128126.623699200318.9428697822330290.7136466157.857248185413.7091079512.1072099696

    132157.018263003326.6540281196453530.876369664177.693520797212.17873362252.1205739312

    13647.43416470548.0522774043132487.798713175201.30693510710.7501614642.1335389084

    14097.873844811920.6721876889325707.007352363229.69097432159.42171133462.1461280357

    14438.34018805667.9254562707118332.988516657264.18187568928.19163710832.1583624921

    14818.83663821923.066088520942891.7363966944306.6088520857.05811995162.1702617154

    15229.36735261527.190524741493075.4094544656359.52623706866.01926044082.1818435879

    15609.9374139395005.07306922442.1931245984

    160110.55312707555.131250074254448.6692983786513.1250074224.21745583422.2041199827

    164311.2224453618.816931622176176.124749833627.23105406513.45021510372.214843848

    168011.9556005893002.76901042542.2253092817

    172012.7660660943002.17135274412.2355284469

    176013.6720894455001.65457363342.2455126678

    180014.6992540042001.21578989482.2552725051

    184015.8850284644000.85185551212.264817823

    188017.2875019782000.55929377492.2741578493

    192019.0039908344000.33419618962.2833012287

    196021.2169298533000.17206056022.2922560714

    200024.3358922234000.06750203852.3010299957

    204029.6677936123000.01363428232.3096301674

    20802.318063335

    Total weight caught9773056.17032203

    Survivors to L>m503.42858478338372432.56585043

    Total weight caught m5588652.00300829

    Total possible catch >Lm12556836.7331642

    Increase over actual catch0.2848423783

    Sheet3

    000

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    00

    Numbers

    Survivors L>m

    S

    Length (cm)

    Numbers

    LengthNumbersWeightab

    0000.00773.1

    400

    800LinfLmfLopt

    1200210102128

    1600Kt0M

    20000.13-0.80.3

    241146.2667374924

    2881886.9943913385

    32258920.6328772795

    365829816.4868538977

    404532069.2801877505

    445451711.5769824505

    487999075.3584639406

    5294151087.64226137

    5688177973.885108043

    6077192863.625523456

    6455168271.797529386

    6846169834.60529393

    7242185127.422476542

    7633171999.34819623

    8042256636.825893443

    8436255893.357587551

    8838312011.502932791

    9227254446.659784733

    9647505393.213130869

    10050610183.879097529

    10453730415.442648886

    10853821070.099217255

    11243745650.049507379

    11626502671.010452685

    12025536899.001882021

    12423546796.574500293N

    12812314791.41309431180

    13215432873.670769634

    1364126625.546416946

    1409311695.22215786

    1443113379.804913202

    148141143.5766753267

    152289379.0724704287

    15600

    160152391.7218099314

    1643169678.926872764

    16800

    17200

    17600

    18000

    18400

    18800

    19200

    19600

    20000

    20400

    20800

    N total12189170811.49469894g

    N

  • Die meisten Fische sind zu klein

    Chart4

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    8

    25

    58

    45

    54

    79

    94

    88

    77

    55

    46

    42

    33

    42

    36

    38

    27

    47

    50

    53

    53

    43

    26

    25

    23

    12

    15

    4

    9

    3

    1

    2

    0

    1

    3

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Linf

    Lopt

    Lm

    Numbers

    Length (cm)

    Numbers

    Commercial Landings of Nile perch in 1982

    Sheet1

    Lates niloticus, comparison of length frequency samplesfrom Lake Victoria, given in Asila and Ogari 1988

    Nyanza Golf , February 1982Commercial, February 1982

    LengthNyanza 1982Nyanza 1982 %Commercial 1982Commercial 1982 %

    025100

    4222600

    8141400

    12290800

    16335900

    203811000

    24333910

    28275781

    322196252

    361855585

    401394454

    441173544

    481123796

    521263948

    561223887

    601243776

    641554555

    681384464

    72862423

    76752333

    80742423

    84501363

    88180383

    92120272

    9660474

    10000504

    10400534

    10800534

    11200434

    11600262

    12000252

    12400232

    12800121

    13200151

    1360040

    1400091

    1440030

    1480010

    1520020

    1560000

    1600010

    1640030

    1680000

    1720000

    1760000

    1800000

    1840000

    1880000

    1920000

    1960000

    2000000

    2040000

    2080000

    37601218

    Sheet2

    Sheet2

    0.664893617

    5.9042553191

    3.75

    7.7127659574

    8.9095744681

    10.1329787234

    8.8563829787

    7.3138297872

    5.8244680851

    4.920212766

    3.6968085106

    3.1117021277

    2.9787234043

    3.3510638298

    3.2446808511

    3.2978723404

    4.1223404255

    3.670212766

    2.2872340426

    1.9946808511

    1.9680851064

    1.329787234

    0.4787234043

    0.3191489362

    0.1595744681

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Nyanza Gulf, N = 3759

    Loo

    Lopt

    Lm male

    Lm female

    Nyanza 1982

    Length (cm TL)

    Frequency (%)

    Sheet5

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.0821018062

    0.6568144499

    2.052545156

    4.7619047619

    3.6945812808

    4.4334975369

    6.4860426929

    7.7175697865

    7.2249589491

    6.3218390805

    4.5155993432

    3.776683087

    3.4482758621

    2.7093596059

    3.4482758621

    2.9556650246

    3.1198686371

    2.2167487685

    3.8587848933

    4.105090312

    4.3513957307

    4.3513957307

    3.5303776683

    2.1346469622

    2.052545156

    1.8883415435

    0.9852216749

    1.2315270936

    0.328407225

    0.7389162562

    0.2463054187

    0.0821018062

    0.1642036125

    0

    0.0821018062

    0.2463054187

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Commercial fishery, N = 1218

    Loo

    Lopt

    Lm male

    Lm female

    Frequency (%)

    Sheet4

    Epinephelus sexfasciatus, Pauly book p. 60

    Linf30.9M1.12

    K0.51

    to-0.2

    Lm18.2Lg18.5

    Lopt18.849tg1.59

    a0.0265

    b2.9

    LengthNumberWeight totAge

    5514.10031746680.14610434350.99230454

    729216.98423828190.30368181376.866259308

    91141767.88496613860.475038327632.7021679973

    111614467.97296832740.662816572956.9947367938

    131436441.9542040960.870500923663.8799579281

    151188049.93794487821.102817793568.3772764076

    17615982.4293839671.366406556447.4866779431

    19506770.19723405851.6710152623

    21325792.04339464982.0318067191

    23174005.94995750092.4743008322

    2541200.41631796623.0466741823

    2741500.58562346683.8583914329

    Total73846210.456550798

    < 18.563126941.2640231558

    18.563179081.1990446525

    Survivors to 18.5 cm277.2993809179

    Surv. Weight at 18.534753.0388864145

    Potential catch54022.23141405670.169047775

    Sheet4

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Actual:N = 738Catch = 46 kg

    Potential:N = 384Catch = 54 kg+ 17%

    Linf

    Lopt

    Lm

    Number

    Sheet3

    Loo210a0.0077

    K0.13b3.1

    to-0.8

    M0.3

    Lm102tm4.4589879739

    Lopt119topt5.8036243153

    L>m110.5t>m5.1019627132

    LengthNumbersAgeSurvivors L>mS%S

    00-0.726388838300

    40-0.5770189471000.6020599913

    80-0.4246910449000.903089987

    120-0.2692856039001.079181246

    160-0.1106757024001.2041199827

    2000.05127359910098.47356201851.3010299957

    2410.2167059470.230944691187.459780376823.09446910493.70564209491.3802112417

    2880.38577446021.94368385312336.988642607624.296048163389.07136015221.4471580313

    32250.55864258216.397324048810765.033277436725.589296195384.56981543041.5051499783

    36580.7354850315.650450548335257.203979601326.983535428180.2000932011.5563025008

    40450.916488856312.820177958237305.772647548628.489284351775.96126422531.6020599913

    44541.101854637616.263960113859351.782041374530.118444655271.85238417851.6434526765

    48791.291797811425.1887730646112441.03379512531.884522866567.87249303641.6812412374

    52941.486550180531.7747205527169839.70789576733.80289420564.02061442141.7160033436

    56881.686361614431.5841838697198426.73088678835.891118033760.2957549051.748188027

    60771.891501976629.390373856213498.92262197138.169316696256.69690326011.7781512504

    64552.102263316522.3633479436185114.14899803440.660632624753.22302966121.806179974

    68462.318962370119.9602200137185802.8968968543.391782638549.87308482481.8325089127

    72422.541943422919.4853681222201538.65074649746.393733624446.64599908571.8573324964

    76332.77158160116.4018351476186422.33072438749.702530750343.54068140111.8808135923

    80423.008286667722.4113338116277053.06429648853.36031859940.55601827431.903089987

    84363.252507423920.6699788751275257.03331489557.416607986337.69087259111.9242792861

    88383.504736830323.5333460183334523.0910233261.92985794334.94408235561.9444826722

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