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  • Transport Research Laboratory 2012

    Transport Research Laboratory Creating the future of transport

    PUBLISHED PROJECT REPORT PPR620

    Analysis of police collision files for pedestrian fatalities in

    London, 2006-10

    J Knowles, L Smith, R Cuerden and E Delmonte

    Prepared for: Transport for London, Delivery Planning - Surface Planning

    Project Ref: TfL2520

    Quality approved:

    Jenny Stannard

    (Project Manager)

    Richard Cuerden

    (Technical Referee)

  • Disclaimer

    This report has been produced by the Transport Research Laboratory under a contract

    with Transport for London. Any views expressed in this report are not necessarily those

    of Transport for London.

    The information contained herein is the property of TRL Limited and does not necessarily

    reflect the views or policies of the customer for whom this report was prepared. Whilst

    every effort has been made to ensure that the matter presented in this report is

    relevant, accurate and up-to-date, TRL Limited cannot accept any liability for any error

    or omission, or reliance on part or all of the content in another context.

    When purchased in hard copy, this publication is printed on paper that is FSC (Forest

    Stewardship Council) and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free) registered.

    Contents amendment record

    This report has been amended and issued as follows:

    Version Date Description Editor Technical Referee

    1 March 2012 Draft for client comment LS/JK RC

    2 July 2012 Final version LS/JK RC

  • Pedestrian fatalities in London

    1 PPR620

    Contents

    Executive summary 3

    1 Introduction 5

    2 Research Methods 6

    2.1 Overview of STATS19 data 6

    2.2 Police Fatal Road Traffic Collision Files 6

    2.3 Sampling 7

    2.4 File content analysis approach 8

    3 Literature review 11

    3.1 Introduction 11

    3.2 Literature search 11

    3.3 Causes of pedestrian collisions 11

    3.4 Interventions/countermeasures 12

    3.5 Summary 14

    4 Analysis of police files in terms of Haddons Matrix 15

    4.1 Pre-event 15

    4.2 The event 27

    4.3 Post-event 38

    5 Interventions for pedestrian safety 43

    5.1 Countermeasures 43

    5.2 In-depth analysis of fatality groups 46

    6 Conclusions 98

    6.1 Key results in terms of Haddons matrix 98

    6.2 Collision types 100

    7 Recommendations 101

    8 Acknowledgments 104

    References 105

    Appendix A Haddons Matrix for pedestrian fatalities 107

    Appendix B Database coding guidelines 110

    Appendix C List of available countermeasures and descriptions 122

    1 Primary interventions 125

    1.1 Engineering - Road 125

    1.2 Engineering -vehicles 129

  • Pedestrian fatalities in London

    2 PPR620

    1.3 Education - Pedestrians 132

    1.4 Education - Drivers 133

    1.5 Enforcement - Drivers 133

    2 Secondary interventions 134

    2.1 Engineering Roads 134

    2.2 Engineering - Vehicles 135

    2.3 Education - pedestrians 136

    2.4 Education Drivers 136

    2.5 Enforcement Drivers 137

    Appendix D STATS19 overview (2007-2010) 138

  • Pedestrian fatalities in London

    3

    Executive summary

    In 2010 the Mayors Transport Strategy included a commitment to improve the safety

    and security of all Londoners (Greater London Authority, 2010). The Transport Strategy

    states (page 201): Despite a fall in the number of casualties from road traffic collisions

    in recent years there is still an unacceptable number of casualties each year. In 2010,

    126 people were killed on Londons roads, of which almost half (58) were pedestrians

    (TfL, 2011).

    This study analysed approximately 200 police fatal files where a pedestrian was killed in

    London in the period 2006-2010, with the overall aim of providing a better

    understanding of how fatal pedestrian collisions in London could be prevented. The files

    were broadly representative of fatal pedestrian collisions in London over the period.

    The fatal files were coded into a database based on Haddons Matrix, which included

    items related to the environment, the pedestrian, vehicle(s) and their driver(s)/rider(s)

    in terms of pre-event, event and post-event.

    The project identified the factors or primary interventions, which if they had been in

    place may have prevented the collision occurring (primary prevention). Further, the

    project considered the causes of the injuries and where practical identified the secondary

    interventions, which if they had been in place may have reduced their severity.

    In total, 198 fatalities from 197 collisions were coded. Several groups of fatalities were

    identified as being of special interest because of particular characteristics of the

    collisions. These groups generally accounted for a substantial proportion of the fatalities

    although some fatalities are included in more than one group. The groups with the

    largest numbers of fatalities were:

    Pedestrians impaired with alcohol (46, 23%);

    Pedestrians aged 80 years and above (41, 21%);

    Pedestrians using a pedestrian facility (49, 25%);

    Pedestrians crossing the carriageway choosing not to use the available crossing

    facility (37, 19%);

    Pedestrians in collisions with buses/coaches (33, 17%);

    Pedestrians struck by speeding vehicles (32, 16%).

    Other groups of interest included pedestrians in collisions with HGVs (27, 14%),

    pedestrians in collisions with motorcycles (14, 7%), child pedestrians (18, 9%) and

    vehicles that mounted the footway (12, 6%).

    In each case, the collisions within each group were analysed in terms of who was

    involved, the contributory factors, injuries and possible countermeasures.

    For the pre-event:

    65 pedestrians (33%) were 70 years or over

    48 of the pedestrians (24%) were impaired by alcohol (combined with drugs in 10

    cases) and 1 pedestrian was impaired by drugs only;

    56% of the pedestrians were struck by a car, 17% by a bus or coach and 14% by

    an HGV;

  • Pedestrian fatalities in London

    4

    The vast majority of vehicles had no defects prior to the collision;

    178 of the 197 collisions (90%) were on roads with a speed limit of 30mph or

    lower and 145 collisions (74%) occurred on A-roads;

    64% of the collisions were within 20m of a junction; most commonly at a T,

    staggered junction or crossroads;

    There was a crossing facility within 50m of the collision site in 91 locations

    (46%);

    117 (59%) pedestrian fatalities occurred between 6am and 6pm; however, at

    weekends there were greater numbers of pedestrian fatalities at night compared

    with during the day.

    For the event:

    In 177 of the collisions (90%), the pedestrian was crossing the road, most

    commonly whilst the vehicle was travelling straight ahead;

    49 pedestrians (25%) were crossing at a facility and 37 (19%) were crossing

    within 50m of a facility;

    15 of the 27 HGVs which hit a pedestrian were moving off when they struck the

    pedestrian.

    Contributory factors:

    96 pedestrians (48%) were recorded with failed to look properly as a

    contributory factor and this factor was most common for all age groups;

    38% of adults aged between 16 and 59 were recorded with impaired by alcohol

    as a contributory factor;

    13 of the 82 pedestrians aged 60 or over (16%) were recorded with wrong use of

    pedestrian crossing facility as a factor;

    The most commonly recorded contributory factor for vehicles was failed to look

    properly, recorded for 20% of vehicles; this was most common for all vehicle

    types except for HGVs, for which vision affected by blind spot was more common

    (recorded for 12 out of 27 HGVs).

    For the post event:

    68 drivers/riders (35%) were convicted following the collision, most commonly for

    careless driving (40);

    24 vehicles (12%) failed to stop at the scene of the collision, all of which were

    later traced. For large vehicles such as HGVs or buses/coaches, the driver may

    not have realised that a collision had occurred.

    For the 50 cases where the post mortems were coded, the most common life-

    threatening injuries were head (34) and thorax (31) injuries; 18 had both head

    and thorax;

    Overall, the most common countermeasures recorded were primary countermeasures.

  • Pedestrian fatalities in London

    5

    1 Introduction

    In 2010 the Mayor of London published the Mayors Transport Strategy which included a

    commitment to improve the safety and security of all Londoners (Greater London

    Authority, 2010). The Transport Strategy states (page 201): Despite a fall in the

    number of casualties from road traffic collisions in recent years there is still an

    unacceptable number of casualties each year. In 2010, 126 people were killed on

    Londons roads, of which almost half (58) were pedestrians (TfL, 2011). This study

    aimed to provide a better understanding of how fatal pedestrian collisions in London

    could be prevented.

    Police fatal road traffic collision reports provide a unique insight into the causes and

    consequences of fatal collisions and what may have prevented the collision or reduced its

    severity. By investigating the nature and causes of collisions it may be possible to

    understand how they coul

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