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  • 6/12/2012

    1

    TRANSLATIONALRESEARCHINMECHANICSANDMATERIALSWITHEMPHASESONSUSTAINABILITYAND

    DURABILITYDURABILITY

    KenP.Chong1,2,JiaoyanLi1,JamesD.Lee1,andShuangLingChong3

    MechanicalandAerospaceEngineeringDepartment,TheGeorgeWashingtonUniversity(GWU),Washignton,DC.USA

    NationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnology(NIST),Gaithersburg,MD.USAk h @ i tkchong@nist.gov

    3 FederalHighwayAdministration(retired),McLean,VA.USA

    Theopinionsexpressedinthisarticlearetheauthorsonly,notnecessarilythoseofthe

    NationalScienceFoundation(NSF),NIST,FHWAorGWU.

    INTRODUCTIONTRANSLATIONAL RESEARCHTRANSLATIONALRESEARCHSUSTAINABILITYNANOS&EMULTISCALESCALESYSTEMSSUMMARY&ACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCES

  • 6/12/2012

    2

    A 21st Century World

    InformationE l i

    GlobalE

    CognitiveRevolution

    DiverseWorkforce

    Explosion

    FiniteResources

    InternationalCompetition

    Economy

    Energy

    DefenseReinvestment

    DemographicShifts

    EnvironmentalSustainability

    RandomViolence

    InternationalCollaboration

    CivilandMechanicalInfrastructure

    Bridges More than 600,000 in U.S. Pipelines 2 million miles of natural gas lines in U.S.

    Commercial Aircraft 9,000 in use in U.S. Wind Turbines 21,000 MW capacity in the U.S.

  • 6/12/2012

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    NSF 93-5K. P. CHONG, Task Group Chair

    CISmajorrecommendations1.DeteriorationScience examineshowmaterialsandstructuresbreakdownandwearoutovertime;

    2.AssessmentTechnologies determinehowdurable,safeandenvironmentallybenignthe(building)structuresare;

    3.RenewalEngineering extendandenhancesthelifeofCISandcomponents;

    4.InstitutionalEffectivenessandProductivitydecisionprocessesontheCISontheeconomicandproductivityissues.

  • 6/12/2012

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    WTECSupportofSimulationBasedEngineering&ScienceStudy

    2007.InitiatedbyKenChongatNSF;twodozenprogramofficers participateofficersparticipate

    2009.Internationalstudy:Glotzer&Kim,59sitesstudiedabroad.

    2010.ResearchDirectionsWorkshop:Cummings&Glotzer

    2011.OnJune24ObamaAdministrationannounces0 O Ju e Oba a d st at o a ou cesMaterialsGenomeInitiative(MGI)citingSBESresults

    INTRODUCTIONTRANSLATIONAL RESEARCHTRANSLATIONALRESEARCHSUSTAINABILITYNANOS&EMULTISCALESCALESYSTEMSSUMMARY&ACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCES

  • 6/12/2012

    5

    TranslationalResearch

    Isinterdisciplinarybynaturep y y Involvesateamusually Reliesonpartnerships Results in clear benefit to

    9

    Resultsinclearbenefittosociety

    Applied, Basic and Translational research

    Use inspired basic

    A Modified Pasteurs Quadrant(derived from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasteur's_Quadrant)

    fundamentalunderstanding?

    Yes Pure basic research(Bohr)

    Use-inspired basic research(Pasteur)

    Multidiscipline translational research

    (Smalley, Gao)

    No Incremental applied researchPure applied

    researchpp(Edison)

    No Yes

    Considerations of use?

    MODIFIED BY K. P. CHONG

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    SomeexamplesofadvancesinitiatedbyNSFfunding

    Computeraided design (CAD)Computer aideddesign(CAD) Microelectromechanicalsystems(MEMS) Fiberoptics Tissueengineering Dopplerradar TheInternet MRI/NMR Thinfilms;electronicmaterials 187Nobellaureates

    INTRODUCTIONTRANSLATIONAL RESEARCHTRANSLATIONALRESEARCHSUSTAINABILITYNANOS&EMULTISCALESCALESYSTEMSSUMMARY&ACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCES

  • 6/12/2012

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    SUSTAINABILITY

    DefinitionofSustainability: developmentthatmeetstheneedsofthepresentwithoutcompromisingtheabilityoffuturegenerationstomeettheirownneeds [theBrundtlandCommission,1983 Our common futures]1983, Ourcommonfutures ]

    AccordingtoASCE,"asustainablecivilinfrastructureprovidesenvironmental,economic,andsocialwellbeingnowandforthefuture."

    ImpactonU.S.Economy IntheU.S.,constructionandbuildingisa$1.2trillionperyearindustry,represents5percentofthegrossdomesticproduct,andemploysnearly12millionworkers

    Theconstructionindustrydirectlyaffectsasmuchas12%oftheU.S.economywhenmfg.ofconstructionmaterialsandcomponents,buildingcontentsandfurnishings,andrenovationandmaintenanceareincluded

    Buildingsrepresentthesinglelargestenduserofenergy( %) d l i i ( %) d ib f b(40%)andelectricity(72%)andcontributorofcarbondioxideemissions(39%)whencomparedwiththetransportationandindustrialsectors

    Otherchallengingareasare:energy,air&waterpolution,smartgrids,climatechange,carbonfootprint,

  • 6/12/2012

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    ASCE2009ReportCardAviation D Bridges C Dams D

    Drinking Water D-Energy D+

    Hazardous Waste D Inland Waterways D-

    Levees D-Public Parks & Recreation C-

    Rail C-Roads D-School D

    Solid Waste C+Solid Waste C+Transit D

    Wastewater D-

    Civilian Infrastructure -- $2.2 T

    Military Infrastructure -- $0.5 T

    SemiCircularBendSpecimenP

    a

    R

    t

    2s

    Figure. Mode I stress intensity factor. [Chong, K. P. andKuruppu, M. D. 1984. New specimen for fracture toughnessdetermination of rock and other materials, Int. J. fracture, V 26,R59-R62.]]

  • 6/12/2012

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    NIST SPHERE Simulated Photodegradation via

    High Energy Radiant Exposure 2 m integrating sphere

    IntegratingSpherebasedUVChamber

    2 m integrating sphere 8400 W UV 22 SUNS, 24/7 95% exposure uniformity Visible and infrared radiation

    removed Temperature and relative

    humidity around specimens precisely controlledprecisely controlled

    Capability for mechanical loading

    Martin and Chin, U.S. Patent 6626053 Chin et al, Review of Scientific Instruments, 75(11), 4951-4959, 2004.

    KeyDrivers forChangeinConstruction

    Energyindependence,environmentalsecurity,andsustainability

    RenewalofNationsagingphysicalinfrastructure

    Demandforbetterquality,faster,andlesscostlyconstruction

    Competitionduetoglobalizationandoffshoring

    Homelandsecurityanddisasterresilience

  • 6/12/2012

    10

    NRCIdentifiedActivitieswithPotentialforBreakthroughImprovements

    Wid d f i bl h l li i dWid d f i bl h l li i d WidespreaduseofinteroperabletechnologyapplicationsandWidespreaduseofinteroperabletechnologyapplicationsandBuildingInformationModelingBuildingInformationModeling(BIM)(BIM)

    ImprovedjobImprovedjobsiteefficiencythroughmoreeffectiveinterfacingsiteefficiencythroughmoreeffectiveinterfacingofpeople,processes,materials,equipment,andITofpeople,processes,materials,equipment,andIT

    GreateruseofGreateruseofprefabrication,preassembly,modularization,andoffprefabrication,preassembly,modularization,andoffsitesitefabricationandprocessesfabricationandprocesses

    InnovativedemonstrationInstallationsInnovativedemonstrationInstallations EffectiveperformancemeasurestodriveefficiencyandsupportEffectiveperformancemeasurestodriveefficiencyandsupport

    innovationinnovation

    FederalR&DAgenda Integrated,PerformanceBasedDesignandOperation

    NetZeroEnergyBuildingTechnologiesandStrategies

    WaterUseandRainwaterRetention

    MaterialUtilization,Waste,andLifeCycle

    EnvironmentalImpacts

    OccupantHealthandPerformance

    OvercomingBarrierstoImplementation

    The scope of this report is limited to R&D on new technologies, protocols, and practices at the building site, unless they apply as well to groups of buildings or communities.

  • 6/12/2012

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    PolicyFramework

    NIST

    Energy Efficient, Smart Buildings Energy Efficient, Smart Buildings Critical to Smart Grid SuccessCritical to Smart Grid Success

    NIST

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    Sustainability Decision Tool: BEES 4.0 ModelSustainability Decision Tool: BEES 4.0 Model

    Global Warming Acidification

    Carbon Dioxide

    Methane

    Eutrophication Fossil Fuel Depletion

    Indoor Air QualityHabitat Alteration

    Eco-ffi i

    Nitrous Oxide

    Human Health

    Water Intake Criteria Air Pollutants

    EnvironmentalPerformance Score 50%

    Cancer

    NoncancerSmog Efficiency

    Score

    First Cost

    Future Costs

    Ozone Depletion

    Ecological ToxicityEconomic

    PerformanceScore50%

    Noncancer

    NISTBEES = Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability

    StevenChu

    Theresafriendofmine,ArtRosenfeld,h hi h d f d th t hwhospushingveryhardforandthatswhen

    youhaveaflattoproofbuilding,makeitwhiteandifyoumakethepavementmoreofaconcretetypeofcolorratherthanablacktypeofcoloritstheequivalentofreducingthecarbonemissionsduetoallthecarsontheroadfor11years.

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    100m2(~1000 ft2) of a white roof, replacing a dark roof, offset the emission of

    10 tonnes of CO2

    25

    StrategicResearchNeedsintheConstructionArea

    WorkersSafetyandHealthduringConstruction. EnergyEfficientandHighPerformanceFacilities. ConstructionProductivityImprovementTechniques Robotics&AutomationandRapidPrototyping. AdvancedVisualizationTechnique. AutomatedDataAcquisitionandManagement. VirtualProjectManagementTechniques. Real Time Construction Site Monitoring and Management RealTimeConstructionSiteMonitoringandManagementTechnologies.

    RevitalizationandUrbanRedesign. IntegratedSupplyChainManagement.

    R.Kangari,GeorgiaTech

  • 6/12/2012

    14

    Success Story

    Totally Automated Building Construction

    Benefits:

    Innovative Construction Technologies

    Innovative Materials

    Low Cost, High Quality, Speed

    Construction Productivity Improvement Tech

    Workers Safety During Construction

    By: Professor R Kangari Georgia Tech

    Success Story

    Real Time Data Management in Construction

    Benefits:Benefits:

    Effective Managem

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