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  • Transformation in Europe 1400-1800
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  • Objectives How did exploration and the convergence of the old and new worlds contribute to the rise of European power? How did the migration of peoples affect different areas of the world politically, socially, and economically? How did new ways of thinking challenge traditional authority and usher in the Age of Revolutions? How did the governments of Europe change and affect conflict between the social classes? How did mercantilism and capitalism drive the slave trade and create a new global interdependence and political tensions?
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  • Why Explore? With a partner address the following: Define discovery What are the benefits and costs of exploration? What are the top three reasons for exploration? Would you have decided to go explore? Crash Course Video- 15th Century Maritime Explorers
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  • Exploration: Reasons to Explore Benefits Gold, Glory, and God Direct route to Asia for spices=direct access to goods=lmore profitable Humanism and curiosity European monarchs competed to find new routes, territory Desire to spread Christianity Rewards for explorers Possible boom in economy=trade and jobs Costs Getting lost, possible death New technology not perfect Weather Unknown inhabitants Disease and death Communication nonexistent Lack of food and resources Political support and financing=risk and possible failure
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  • Comparing Ming China and Europe Ming China (1368-1644) Disrupted by Mongols and plague Eliminate signs of foreign rule Promotion of Confucian learning Reestablish civil service exam Created highly centralized govt Maritime venture Important sailors and traders in region-Zheng He Launched fleet in 1405 28 years of expeditions No intention of conquering or establishing settlements Abruptly stopped in 1433 Waste of resources Lost govt support Western Europe Cultural renewal and state building Independent and competitive states Renaissance traditions Humanism Challenge to traditional ideas Curiosity Patrons finance endeavors Maritime voyaging Portuguese begin c. 1415 1492-Columbus reaches Americas 1497-1498-Da Gama sails around Africa to India Small compared to Chinese Unlike Chinese, Euro. seeking wealth, converts, territory Violence to carve out empires Europes voyages escalate No political authority to stop Competition Elite support and interested Europe needs resources, greater riches, food production
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  • How does Spain and Portugal differ in their motives for exploring? Portugal First to venture into I.O. GOAL: trade monopoly of I.O. trade (Africa and Asia)=SPICES Set up naval bases and trading forts along coast of Africa and India Henry the Navigator-map making, promoted exploration Dias-1497 Cape of Good Hope Colonized Brazil East of Line of Demarcation Sugar, tobacco, coffee, cotton=slave trade Spain Threes Gs GOAL: Colonize and set up Spanish settlements, resources, exploitation Conquistadors: Cortes conquers Aztecs (central Mexico) and Pizarro conquers Inca (Peru) European guns, germs, and steel Decimation of population Treaty of Tordesillas Animal hides, sugar, tobacco SILVER mining
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  • Outline Migration of peoples: Columbian Exchange Slave trade Social changes: Protestant and Catholic reformations Scientific Revolution Enlightenment Political changes: State Development Absolutism vs. Constitutionalism Economic changes: Mercantilism and capitalism Global trade Rise of the bourgeoisie, joint stock, and stock exchanges
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  • Population Growth and Urbanization Rapidly growing population due to Columbian Exchange Improved nutrition Role of the potato (considered an aphrodisiac in 16 th and 17 th centuries) Replaces bread as staple of diet Better nutrition reduces susceptibility to plague Epidemic disease becomes insignificant for overall population decline by mid-17 th century
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  • Population Growth in Europe
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  • Urbanization
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  • Cause and Effect Question: What social and economic changes occurred due to Europes expansion around the globe?
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  • Mercantilism Extraction and shipment of gold and silver = money from New World Old World Precious metals from Andes and Mesoamerica=rising share of worlds supply of silver England and others want to share in wealth of Spain and Port. Failed to find much mining wealth BUT abundance of resources and fertile lands to cultivate tobacco, sugar cane, rice, indigo New economic philosophy Worlds wealth is fixed One countrys wealth could be increased at anothers expense Overseas possessions exist for the benefit of European motherlands Colonies closed to competitors Hobbes Wealth is power and power is wealth
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  • Early Capitalism Private parties offer goods and services on a free market Own means of production Private initiative, not government control Supply and demand determines prices Banks, stock exchanges develop in early modern period Joint-Stock Companies (English East India Company) Relationship with empire-building
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  • The Bourgeoisie Urban bourgeoisie thrived on manufacturing, finance, and trade Netherlands growth of Amsterdam was built on trade and finance and exemplifies power of 17 th century bourgeoisie Forged mutually beneficial relationships with the monarchs, built ethnic and family networks=facilitation of trade around the world Partnerships between merchants and govt=joint stock companies
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  • Impact of Capitalism on Social Order Rural life Improved access to manufactured goods Increasing opportunities in urban centers begins depletion of the rural population Inefficient institution of serfdom abandoned in western Europe, retained in Russia until 19 th century Nuclear families replace extended families Gender changes as women enter income-earning work force Exploitation of workers ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
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  • Capitalism and Morality Adam Smith (1723-1790) argued that capitalism would ultimately improve society as a whole What do you think about this statement?? But major social change increases poverty in some sectors Rise in crime Witch-hunting a possible consequence of capitalist tensions and gender roles
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  • Old vs. New World Crops Read the article The Columbian Exchange Purpose for reading: What is the Columbian exchange? What were the major consequences, both + and --? How is this event a turning point in history? Columbian Exchange Video
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  • Migration: Columbian Exchange New era of interaction Catastrophe and opportunity Disease Intercontinental exchange of plants and animals Devastation of Amerindian Population Western hemisphere: 33-50 million 4.5 million (smallpox, measles, whooping cough influenza, plague) Up to 90% of population dies Benefits of Columbian exchange Exchange of food sources=facilitated pop. Growth Cassava, maize, white and sweet potato Africa, China, and Europe Domesticated animals to the New World, Long run=increase world pop. More than 10x: 500 mill 6 bill.
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  • Migration: The Slave Trade Enforced migration, captives against their will Africa contributed more immigrants to New World than did Europe Trading in African slaves not new (Romans, Arabs and Saharan caravans, Eastern Africa Indian Ocean trade) Europeans reoriented the trade routes of Africa to the Atlantic coast Trade increased on the Western African coastal cities Under 1000 1451-75 7500 per year in first of 17 th cent. 50,000 through the 18 th and of 19th cent. 10 million or more Atlantic Slave Trade Video
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  • Triangular Trade 1. European manufactured goods (especially firearms) sent to Africa 2. African slaves purchased and sent to Americas 3. Cash crops purchased in Americas and returned to Europe
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  • The Middle Passage African slaves captured by raiding parties, force- marched to holding pens at coast Middle passage under horrific conditions 4-6 weeks Mortality initially high, often over 50%, eventually declined to 5% Total slave traffic, 15 th -18 th c.: 12 million Approximately 4 million killed before arrival
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  • The Middle Passage
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  • African Exports Per Year
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  • Slave Destinations
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  • Regional Differences Caribbean, South America: African population unable to maintain numbers through natural means Malaria, yellow fever Brutal working conditions, sanitation, nutrition Gender imbalance Constant importation of slaves North America: less disease, more normal sex ratio Slave families encouraged as prices rise in 18 th century
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  • Slaves and Economic Importance Direct proportion to the expansion of the sugar plantation economy in Caribbean after 1650 France held richest, single sugar colony in Caribbean Haiti Cheaper to work them to death and buy replacements Fared better in North America
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  • Slaves and Africa Slave trade influence rise and fall of individual states in Africa Slaves represent main forms of wealth Source of la


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