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<ul><li><p>Training Package on Natural Hazards and Early Warning for Training of Trainers in Kenya</p><p>United Nations International Strategy for Disaster ReductionRegional Office for Africa</p><p>I S D REUROPEAN COMMISSION</p><p>Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protecti on</p><p>UNISDR AfricaUN Complex Block N, Level 2P.O. Box 47074, Gigiri, Nairobi, KenyaTel: +254 20 762 1569Fax: +254 20 762 4726ISDR-Africa@unep.orgwww.unisdr.org/africa</p></li><li><p>Training Package on Natural Hazards and Early Warning for Training of </p><p>Trainers in Kenya</p><p>United Nations International Strategy for Disaster ReductionRegional Office for Africa</p><p>I S D REUROPEAN COMMISSION</p><p>Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protecti on</p></li><li><p>Printing: UNON, Publishing Services Section, Nairobi, ISO 14001: 2004-certified</p></li><li><p>iii</p><p>Table of Contents</p><p>Acknowledgement.................................................................................................................. v</p><p>Glossary.of.Common.Terminologies...................................................................................... vi</p><p>Acronyms.and.Abbreviations................................................................................................ vii</p><p>1.. Introduction..................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Background............................................................................................................1 1.2 Rationale of the natural hazard fact sheet training ................................................1 1.3 Objectives of the training course ......................................................................... 2 1.4 Expected outcome ................................................................................................ 2 1.5 Training methods .................................................................................................. 2 1.6 Course duration .................................................................................................... 2 1.7 Target group/participants ..................................................................................... 2 1.8 Course structure and contents .............................................................................. 3 1.9 Proposed profile of trainers .................................................................................. 4 1.10 Usage of the training manual ................................................................................ 4</p><p>2.. Training.Modules.1.:........................................................................................................ 5 2.1 Module 1: introduction to disaster risk reduction ................................................. 5 2.2 Session1: Knowing the participants ...................................................................... 5 2.3 Session 2: Expectation setting .............................................................................. 5 2.4 Session 3: Why this course? ................................................................................. 5 2.5 Session 4: Understanding language of disaster risk reduction ............................. 6 2.6 Understanding disaster risk reduction language .................................................. 6 2.7 Global and regional perspectives of hazards and disaster risk reduction ........... 16</p><p>3.. Modules.2:.Natural.Hazards.and.Disaster.Risk.Reduction.in.Kenya.............................22 3.1 Background ........................................................................................................ 22 3.2 Natural hazards in Kenya .................................................................................... 22 3.3 Disaster risk reduction in Kenya: Institutional and legal frameworks ................. 24</p><p>4.. Modules.3:.Drought.Hazard.In.Kenya...........................................................................29 4.1 Learning objectives ............................................................................................. 30 4.2 Background and distribution of drought in Kenya ...............................................31 4.3 Types of droughts ................................................................................................31 4.4 Parameters of drought severity ............................................................................31 4.5 Causes of drought ................................................................................................31 4.6 Impact of drought .............................................................................................. 32 4.7 Drought hazard assessment and mapping .......................................................... 34 4.8 Drought onset, monitoring and early warning .................................................... 34 4.9 Elements most risk to drought hazard ................................................................ 34 4.10 Drought mitigation, minimization and risk reduction strategies ......................... 35 4.11 Aims of drought mitigation ................................................................................. 35 4.12 Community participation .................................................................................... 39</p></li><li><p>Training Package on Natural Hazards and Early Warning for Training of Trainers' in Kenya</p><p>iv</p><p>5.. Modules.4:.Flood.Hazard.in.Kenya...............................................................................42 5.1 Learning Objectives ............................................................................................ 42 5.2 Understanding floods ...................................................................................... 42 5.3 Areas affected by floods in Kenya ....................................................................... 42 5.4 Parameters of flood severity ............................................................................... 43 5.5 Causes of floods ................................................................................................. 43 5.6 Mechanisms of flood destruction ........................................................................ 44 5.7 Economic and social impacts of floods on the regions affected ......................... 46 5.8 Floods hazard assessment and mapping ............................................................ 46 5.9 Flood monitoring and early warning institutions ................................................ 46 5.10 Elements most at risk to flood hazard ................................................................ 46 5.11 Mitigation prevention, minimization and risk reduction strategies ..................... 47 5.12 Community-based risk reduction measures ........................................................ 49</p><p>6.. Modules.5:.Earth/Land.Movement.Hazards.(Landslides.and.Earthquakes)................ 52 6.1 Landslides .......................................................................................................... 52 6.2 Earthquake ......................................................................................................... 57</p><p>7.. Modules.6:.Tsunami......................................................................................................62 7.1 Learning objectives ............................................................................................. 62 7.2 Tsunami occurrence in Kenya .............................................................................. 62 7.3 Causes of tsunamis ............................................................................................. 62 7.4 Impact and effects of tsunamis ........................................................................... 63 7.5 Mitigation, minimization and risk reduction strategies ....................................... 63</p><p>8.. Modules.7:.Lightening.and.Wild.Fires..........................................................................64 8.1 Lightening .......................................................................................................... 64 8.2 Wild Fires ............................................................................................................ 65</p><p>9. Modules.8:.Disease.Pandemics.................................................................................... 73 9.1 Malaria ................................................................................................................ 73 9.2 Cholera ............................................................................................................... 76</p><p>10.. Modules.9:.Disaster.Preparedness.and.Early.Warning................................................ 79 10.1 Module learning objectives ................................................................................. 79 10.2 Understanding disaster preparedness ............................................................ 79 10.3 Components of a disaster preparedness mechanism ......................................... 79 10.4 Disaster preparedness and disaster risk reduction ............................................. 79 10.5 Disaster contingency planning ............................................................................ 80 10.6 Early warning systems ........................................................................................ 80 10.7 Code of conduct in disaster response ................................................................ 84</p><p>11.. Recommendations.on.Awareness.Raising.Strategies...................................................85 11.1 Increasing awareness to district and sub national level personnel .................... 85 11.2 Increasing community awareness ....................................................................... 85 11.3 Communication tips on public awareness ........................................................... 85 11.4 Planning public education initiatives ..................................................................86 11.5 The seven DRR potential partners.......................................................................86</p><p>References............................................................................................................................ 87</p></li><li><p>v</p><p>Acknowledgement</p><p>This Natural hazards training package herein also referred to as a training toolkit is developed by the Kenya National Disaster risk reduction (DRR) Platform through the Ministry of State for Special programmes (MoSSP) with technical and financial support from United Nations Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), Africa and the Government of Germany. </p><p>The team at Kenya National platform gratefully acknowledges the individual and institutional reviewers for their input which has informed this second version of this toolkit. The reviewers include Julius Kabubi [DRR Advisor, UNISDR [Africa], Beatrice Teya (UNDP, Nairobi), Thomas Nyambane (UN OCHA, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs) and Vincent Matioli (MoSSP). </p><p>The team greatly appreciates the involvement, technical inputs and guidance provided in every step of the development of this toolkit by Rhea Katsanakis from UNIDR Regional Office which laid the foundation of this manual. The National platform expresses sincere gratitude to the Government of Germany and ECHO for the financial support in developing this important toolkit which is believed would be of great importance in building capacity for reducing risk reduction from natural hazards in Kenya.</p><p>The training package looks forward for greater improvement from the inputs and feedback to be received from the participants during the planned workshop for sub national DRR platform members and stakeholders in Nakuru.</p><p>This manual is developed by Nicodemus Nyandiko, a DRR analyst.</p></li><li><p>Training Package on Natural Hazards and Early Warning for Training of Trainers' in Kenya</p><p>vi</p><p>Glossary of Common Terminologies</p><p>Hazard A potentially damaging physical event, human activity or phenomenon with a potential to cause loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, environmental degradation among other effects. </p><p>Vulnerability Vulnerability refers to a set of conditions resulting from physical, social, economic and environmental factors, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of disasters. Vulnerability also refers to the characteristics of a person or group in terms of their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of natural hazards. </p><p>Disaster A disaster can be defined as a serious disruption of the functioning of the society causing widespread human, material or environmental damage and losses which exceed the ability of the affected community to cope using their own resources. </p><p>Risk Risk is the probability of harmful consequences or loss resulting from the interaction between natural hazards and vulnerable conditions of property and people. </p><p>Mitigation Short and long-term actions, programmers or policies implemented in advance of a natural hazard or in its early stages, to reduce the degree of risk to the people, property, and productivity capacity. </p><p>PreparednessPre-disaster activities designed to increase the level of readiness or improve operational capabilities for responding to an emergency. </p><p>Response Actions taken immediately before, during or directly after a disaster to reduce impacts and improve recovery from disaster effects. </p><p>Impacts Specific effects of hazards or disasters also referred to as consequences or outcomes. </p></li><li><p>vii</p><p>Acronyms and Abbreviations</p><p>ALRMP Arid Lands Resource Management Project </p><p>AP Administrative Police</p><p>ARV Anti-retroviral treatment</p><p>ASAL Arid and semi arid land</p><p>AU Africa Union </p><p>CBSE Central Board of Secondary Education</p><p>CTBTO Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization</p><p>DDMT District Disaster Management Team</p><p>DDMU District Drought Management Unit</p><p>DEPHA Data Exchange Platform for Horn of Africa</p><p>DMC Drought Monitoring Centre</p><p>DSG District Steering Group</p><p>EDRP Emergency Drought Recovery Project</p><p>EIA Environmental Impact Assessment</p><p>EMCA Environment Management and Coordination Act</p><p>GoK Government of Kenya</p><p>GSU General Service Unit</p><p>HFA Hyogo Framework for Action</p><p>ICPAC IGAD Climate Predictions and Applications Centre</p><p>ICSU-ROA International Council for Scientific Union - Regional Office for Africa</p><p>IDPS Internally Displaced People</p><p>IGAD Intergovernmental Agency for Agricultural Development</p><p>ITNS Insecticide-treated nets</p><p>KEMRI Kenya Medical Research Institute</p><p>KMD Kenya Meteorological Department</p><p>KPLC Kenya Power and Lighting Company</p><p>LLITNs Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets</p></li><li><p>Training Package on Natural Hazards and Early Warning for Training of Trainers' in Kenya</p><p>viii</p><p>MAM March, April &amp; May</p><p>MDGs Millennium Development Goals</p><p>NAPDD National Action Programme for Combating Drought and Desertification NDCF - National Drought Contingency Fund</p><p>NDOC National (Disaster) Operations Centre </p><p>NEPAD New Partnership for Africas Development</p><p>NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration</p><p>NTEWC Tsunami Early Warning Centre</p><p>NTIC Natio...</p></li></ul>

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