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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN TELECOM SECTOR IN PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT

Despite the vast research on training and development, little is known about the perspective of Pakistan on it. The overall image that emerges from the Pakistan telecom sector is negative, but as we see a huge encroachment in technology, we are witnessing improved results in the telecom sector of the country. Training and development plays a fundamental role in making sector advancement in almost every field more rapidly by civilizing labor skills, enhancing human resource, development in technology, and developing leadership attributes. In Pakistan, to compete with international standards, consistency in training and development is desirable. This study is a part of a growing body of research, which aims at the importance of training and development in the telecom sector of Pakistan, and this will increase our understanding of the need of training and development in all the other sectors which will contribute to further research on similar topics.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACTII1.INTRODUCTION11.1Background of the problem51.2Theoretical Framework62.PROBLEM DEVELOPMENT72.1Significance of the study72.2Study Objectives82.3Research Questions92.4Relevant Variables112.5Research Hypotheses123.LITERATURE REVIEW193.1PADAA203.2Quasi experimental design213.3Goldberger approach223.4Ethnographic methods243.5Mann-Whitney U test253.6Chi-square model test273.7Mediating effect303.8Swedish model323.9Pearson correlation343.10Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test364.METHODOLOGY384.1Introduction to chapter394.2Purpose of research394.3Research approach394.3.1Primary and Secondary data394.3.2Sample size404.4Regression Equation405.ANALYSIS415.1Employees frequency distribution analysis415.2Trainers frequency distribution analysis535.3LINEAR REGRESSION635.3.1Employee645.3.2Trainers645.4MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION665.4.1Employee665.4.2Trainers705.5CROSSTAB735.5.1Employee735.5.2Trainers776.CONCLUSION816.1Conclusion816.2Future research836.3Limitations846.4Reference86

APPENDIX87Appendix A Constitutive and operational definition of variables87Appendix B Frequency Graph Analysis92Appendix C Descriptive of mean112Appendix D Descriptive of Linear Regression116Appendix E Descriptive of Multivariate Regression119Appendix F Questionnaire of trainer and trainee127

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INTRODUCTION

The telecommunication sector in Pakistan was initiated by a government-run monopolist, previously called as Telephone and Telegraph department (T&T). It was not only the entire single controller in the industry but was also the policy maker and operator in the country. Later on T&T was turned into a corporation which proved quite profitable but the re-investment done by the company was not enough to meet every day technological advancement and to invest in emerging telecom services and make them available to the public. Consequently Pakistan lagged behind in the telecom sector for many initial years as compared with her neighboring countries.Cellular mobile services first came into Pakistan in the early 1990s with the commencement of the two cellular companies, Paktel and Pak Com (Instaphone). However these two companies were unable to meet the growing demands of the people. The government of Pakistan thus decided to cut down on the monopolistic atmosphere prevalent in the telecom sector and usher in more competition in the cellular market. Resultantly Mobilink came into Pakistan in 1994 introducing GSM technology for the first time in Pakistan initially under MOTOROLA Inc., and later was bought by ORASCOM, an Egyptian multi-national company. Then Ufone was launched by the Pakistan government in 2001 as a part of its PTCL operations but is owned by Etisalat. After that came the year 2005 which is perhaps the landmark in the cellular history of Pakistan as two giant multinationals, Telenor and Warid successfully launched their cellular services in Pakistan right after the other. The coming of these two multinationals revolutionized the entire telecom industry increasing competition and foreign investment to considerable levels and putting an end to the monopolistic practices. Training refers to the gaining of knowledge, skills and learning to improve performance of the employee within the organization. Learning and Development is used instead of training and development in order to underline the importance of learning for the individual and the organization. In few organizations, Human resource development is used. Training is specific and done to improve ones capability, capacity and performance. Training can be generally categorizes as on-the-job training or off-the-job training. On-the-job describes training that is given in a normal working condition, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or resources that they will use when fully trained. On-the-job training is usually most effective for professional work. Off-the- job training takes place away from normal work situation which means that the employee is not regarded as productive worker when training a taking place. An advantage of off-the-job training is that it allows people to get away from work and totally concentrate on the training being given. This type of training is most effective for training concepts and ideas. Training is one of the major functions of Human resource management. Training of their members and officials is essential to strengthen the organization and improve its various functions. Training and development of an organization includes executive coaching, mentoring, climate conditioning, organizational setting, designing training program, control changing environment, control variables, objectives and developing skills like leadership.Basically leadership refers to an activity that enhances the quality of leadership within an individual or organization. People are not born with the same potential to lead well. Different personal characteristic can help a persons effectiveness. Yet everyone can improve it with the help of training and development. Today, as competition gets even tougher, telecom companies are trying to further streamlining their employment with the help profound of training and development.The main focus of training and development is to enable the participants to interconnect domestic issues and challenges with international trends and developments so as to allow them to find appropriate answers to challenges posed by the international movement. The workplace and workforce are changing rapidly and that to keep pace; their employees must continually acquire new skills. Today's environment presents numerous challenges including: new technology, global competition, and company downsizing. Providing and supporting continuing education for employees confronts these challenges head-on and clearly creates a more competent workforce, and ultimately profit increases. So continuous training of employee is must in present world in order to hit the top and maintain it. Training of employee should be done in such a way that the option available to the learner as to how, when, where, with what materials and what he or she learns is very important not for the professional and educational reasons but also for the economic motivations. The training procedure offered to the workforce should be flexible and close to the real-time scenario, so that each and every individual taste the real experience.Training and development is very important in telecom sector because it is more associated with the modern science and it consists of up to date equipment and methods. The employees should know the working of the equipments they are handling and how the equipment will respond to the given commands. The process of training and development is long, complex and lot of money is at stake yet it is one of the most vital steps of HRM.The approach of training and development offered and carried out in the telecommunication organizations should be diverse from other business and organizations because in telecom sector they are providing wireless services using the most modern tools and equipment. In order to manipulate such variety of equipments you need professional that know everything about the tools. The training and development should me more towards innovation and creativeness.The organizations which are leading the telecommunication sector of Pakistan and maintaining it position just because they are providing latest training programs and developing procedure in order to improve their employees overall capability.The objective of Human resource is to maximize the return on investment from the organizations human capital and minimize the financial risk. It is the responsibility of the human resource manager to conduct these activities in an effective, legal and consistent manner.Human resource management serves these key functions.Performance evaluation and managementPromotionsIndustrial and employee relationsRecord keeping of all personal dataConfidential advice to internal customer in relation to problems at work

Background of the problemThe focus of my research would be on the human resource management practices in the telecom sector of Pakistan. In organizational development, the related field of training and development (T & D) deals with the design and delivery of learning to develop performance, skills or knowledge within the organization. It is of importance as the telecom industry in Pakistan becomes more competitive and must ensure strict standards in the professionalism of its workforce. By using various methods of training and development such as seminars, workshops, on-the-job training and short courses, telecom industries can bring about an improvement in the productivity and motivation, all of which contributes to overall output and efficiency gains. So in this way, human resource management can play a vital part in enabling an entity in the