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  • CECW-EP

    Engineer Manual

    1110-1-1005

    Department of the ArmyU.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Washington, DC 20314-1000

    EM 1110-1-1005

    31 August 1994

    Engineering and Design

    TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING

    Distribution Restriction StatementApproved for public release; distribution is

    unlimited.

  • EM 1110-1-100531 August 1994

    US Army Corpsof Engineers

    ENGINEERING AND DESIGN

    Topographic Surveying

    ENGINEER MANUAL

  • DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY EM 1110-1-1005U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    CECW-EP Washington, DC 20314-1000

    Manual 31 August 1994No. 1110-1-1005

    Engineering and DesignTOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING

    1. Purpose. This manual establishes procedural guidance, specifications, and quality control criteriafor performing field topographic surveying in support of planning, engineering and design, construc-tion, and environmental restoration activities.

    2. Applicability. This manual applies to all HQUSACE elements, major subordinate commands, anddistricts which perform, contract, or monitor topographic surveys in support of civil works and militaryconstruction activities. It is also applicable to surveys performed or procured by local interest groupsunder various cooperative or cost-sharing agreements.

    3. Discussion. Topographic surveying is performed to determine the planimetric location andtopographic relief of features in three dimensions. Topographic surveys are performed for detailedlarge-scale site plan drawings or maps at scales equal to or larger than 1 inch = 100 feet (1:1,200).Intermediate and small-scale maps are usually constructed by aerial photogrammetry or satellite remotesensing methods. This manual covers field survey techniques used in performing topographic surveyswith modern electronic total stations and electronic data collectors. It includes procedures for transfer-ring field data to computer-aided drafting and design (CADD) systems or geographic informationsystems (GIS) for use in planning, engineering, and construction.

    FOR THE COMMANDER:

    6 Appendice(See Table of Contents)

  • DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY EM 1110-1-1005U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    CECW-EP Washington, DC 20314-1000

    ManualNo. 1110-1-1005 31 August 1994

    Engineering and DesignTOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING

    Table of Contents

    Subject Paragraph Page Subject Paragraph Page

    Chapter 1IntroductionPurpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1-1Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1-1References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 1-1Scope of Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 1-1Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 1-1Brand Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 1-1Accompanying Guide

    Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 1-1USACE Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 1-1COGO System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 1-2Sample Scope of Work . . . . . . . . 1-10 1-2Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 1-2Manual Development and

    Proponency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 1-2Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 1-2

    Chapter 2Topographic Accuracy StandardsGeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2-1Topographic Mapping Standards . 2-2 2-1USACE Topographic Mapping

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2-9Intended Use of the Map . . . . . . 2-4 2-9Area of the Project . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 2-9Map Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 2-9Contour Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 2-10ASPRS Accuracy Standards . . . . 2-8 2-10USACE Horizontal Accuracy

    Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 2-12

    Chapter 3Topographic Survey ControlGeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-1USACE Control Survey Accuracy

    Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 3-1

    Reconnaissance and PlanningPhase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3-2

    Primary Survey Control . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 3-2GPS Survey Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 3-3Secondary Control for

    Topographic Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 3-3Plane Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . 3-7 3-3Scale Factor Considerations . . . . . . . 3-8 3-4Control Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 3-5

    Chapter 4Topographic Survey TechniquesGeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4-1Engineering Site Plan Surveys . . . . . . 4-2 4-1Utility Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 4-1As-Built Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 4-2

    Section I. Plane-Table Surveys

    General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4-3Plane-Table Topography . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 4-3Plane-Table Triangulation . . . . . . . . . 4-7 4-3Plane-Table Resection . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 4-4Plane-Table Two-Point Problem . . . . 4-9 4-5Plane-Table Traverse . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 4-6Plane-Table Stadia Traverse . . . . . . . 4-11 4-6Plane-Table Three-Point

    Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 4-6Contouring Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 4-7Locating and Plotting Detail . . . . . . . 4-14 4-8Plane-Table Equipment Checklist . . . . 4-15 4-10Plane-Table Setup Hints . . . . . . . . . . 4-16 4-10Plane-Table Notekeeping . . . . . . . . . 4-17 4-10Plane-Table Location Details . . . . . . . 4-18 4-11

    i

  • EM 1110-1-100531 Aug 94

    Subject Paragraph Page Subject Paragraph Page

    Section II. Electronic Total Station Surveys

    Electronic Total Stations . . . . . . . 4-19 4-12Field Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20 4-13Equipment Maintenance . . . . . . . 4-21 4-13Maintaining Battery Power . . . . . 4-22 4-14Total Station Job Planning and

    Estimating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23 4-15Electronic Theodolite Error

    Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 4-16Total Survey System Error Sources

    and How to Avoid Them . . . . . 4-25 4-18Controlling Errors . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 4-19Coding Field Data . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27 4-20Field Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28 4-20Modem for Data Transfer (Field

    to Office) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29 4-21Trigonometric Leveling and

    Vertical Traversing . . . . . . . . . 4-30 4-21Trigonometric Leveling Field

    Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31 4-22Trigonometric Leveling Error

    Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-32 4-22

    Chapter 5Data Collection Procedures for theTotal StationGeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 5-1Functional Requirements of a

    Generic Data Collector . . . . . . 5-2 5-1Data Collection Operating

    Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 5-2Field Crew Responsibility . . . . . . 5-4 5-7Surveyor-Data Collector Interface 5-5 5-10Digital Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 5-10Digital Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 5-10Data Collector Requirements . . . . 5-8 5-12Coding Field Data . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 5-14Summary of Total Station Field-

    to-Finish Procedures . . . . . . . . 5-10 5-14Data Collectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 5-14

    Chapter 6Surveyor Data Collector Interfaceand FormatsComputer Interfacing . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6-1Data Standardization . . . . . . . . . 6-2 6-1Coordinate File Coding . . . . . . . . 6-3 6-1Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 6-2Computer-Aided Design and

    Drafting (CADD) Interface . . . . 6-5 6-4

    Total Station Data Collectionand Input to CADD . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6-4

    CADD Plotting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 6-4

    Chapter 7Map CompiliationGeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 7-1CVTPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 7-1File Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 7-1Overview of Topographic Survey

    Data Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 7-2Typical Point Descriptors Used in

    Topographic Surveying . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 7-2

    Chapter 8Architect/Engineer ContractsGeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 8-1Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 8-1Scope of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3 8-1

    Chapter 9Route SurveyingGeneral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 9-1Horizontal Circular Curves . . . . . . . . 9-2 9-1Deflection Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3 9-1Degree of Curve - Arc Definition . . . 9-4 9-2Degree of Curve - Chord

    Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 9-2Curve Stakeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6 9-2Curve Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7 9-2Transition Spirals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8 9-3Spiral Stakeout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9 9-4Vertical Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10 9-4Vertical Curve - Tangent

    Offset Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11 9-4Vertical Curve - Equation

    Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12 9-5Vertical Curve Obstructions . . . . . . . 9-13 9-6

    Appendix AReferences

    Appendix BGuide Specifications

    Appendix CAutomated Topographic Survey Data CollectorEquipment -- Inventory of USACEInstrumentation and Software

    ii

  • EM 1110-1-100531 Aug 94

    Subject Paragraph Page Subject Paragraph Page

    Appendix DCoordinate Geometry Software

    Appendix ESample Scope of Work

    Appendix FGlossary

    iii

  • EM 1110-1-100531 Aug 94

    Chapter 1Introduction

    1-1. Purpose

    This manual establishes procedural guidance, specifica-tions, and quality control criteria for performing fieldtopographic surveying in support of planning, engineeringand design, construction, and environmental restorationactivities.

    1-2. Applicability

    This manual applies to all HQUSACE elements, majorsubordinate commands, and districts which perform,contract, or monitor topographic surveys in support ofcivil works and military construction activities. I

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