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Problem Identification Skills

BASIC SKILLS IN COUNSELLINGPrepared by:Muhammad Alif Firdaus bin IsmailNur Murni binti AbdullahNor Illyana binti Ahmad Nazri

STAGES IN COUNSELLING

WAEHLER & LENNOX FIVE STAGES OF COUNSELLING

ROGERS SEVEN STAGES OF PROCESSThese stages enable us to observe and see whether the clients are making progress in theraphy or seem to be stuck and unable to move on.

Clients are making progress step by step building on their experience before moving on to the next.

When they feel accepted and understood at one stage, they feel able to take to the next step.

ATTENDING AND LISTENING SKILLS

ATTENDING & LISTENING SKILLAttending means being in the company of someone else and giving that person full attention, to what they are saying or doing.

Includes reading the clients body language and also taking into consideration of all the silence and pauses in the conversation.

Listening skills involves linguistics, paralinguistics and non-verbal.

ATTENDING BEHAVIOR

Questions that clients cannot easily answer with Yes/No.

Purpose :To begin interviewTo encourage client elaborationTo motivate client to communicate

Eg. How did you feel when that happened?

OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS

Purposes:To obtain specific informationTo identify issuesTo interrupt over talkative clientTo narrow the discussion topic.

Eg. Do you like this subject?CLOSE-ENDED QUESTIONS

The echoing back of last few words that the client has spoken.

REFLECTION

CLIENT : We moved to Kedah at the beginning of last year but none of us really settle down. I found it difficult to be in a new school.

COUNSELOR : You found it difficult to be in a new school..

Although not associated with counselling, there are times they are appropriate and necessary.

CHALLENGING

CLIENT : There is no one in this school that I can talk to at all.COUNSELOR : No one?===============================================CLIENT : I have always been a failure, never been good in anything.COUNSELOR : Always?

Purpose:To convey that you understand him/herHelp the client simplify the what they saidEncourage the client to elaborate

When to use it?When the client is in the decision making conflict.The client says too many things and you are confused.

PARAPHRASING

Non-verbal interpretation in counselling

Types of non-verbal interpretation actions speak louder than wordswhat you see is what you getIts not what he said, its HOW he said it

1. Body posture Lean slightly forward- positive, showing interest, giving attention

Lean slightly backward- not showing any interest.

Changing position- means that the subject wants to say something while the counsellor is doing the asking/counselling.

2. Facial expression Facial expression is a way of how a person wants to express their insight, emotion, thinking, evaluation of something, and self condition.

During counselling session, facial expression helps the counsellor to transcribe the messages that the subject is trying to deliver.

Eg:- the face will turn to reddish if the subject feels shy- the subject is smiling with sarcastic voice.

3. Eye contactDirect eye contact being honest

Eyes looking at counsellors forehead confused, angry, serious

Making big eyes being honest

Making small eyes giving false explanation

Wink frequently anxious, giving false explanation

Watching elsewhere not showing interest

4. Body movementCrossing arms- a very secretive person, feels very uneasy and less prepared to participate in the session.- feels very negative towards him/herself and defensive.

Hiding hands in pockets- it means that the subject is hiding something.

Scratching- very unsure about statement given

Biting fingers, nails- feel stressed with the questions posed, anxious and worried

Covering mouth with hands- very careful in giving points or explanation

Inhale long breath- showing pain

Placing a finger on cheek- thinking seriously

Hesitate - uneasy with the question

Bowing head- feeling sad

Gripping, grasping hand- feeling angry, showing anger

Barely open eyes- showing less interest

Crossing arms, putting hand on chest, reposition hand watch, crossing legs while sitting.- anxious, defensive

Putting a finger on nose, rubbing the eye, avoiding eye contact, insincere smile, unclear tones- telling lies, being dishonest

5. Voice projectionDuring the session, counsellor will look into different aspects of voice projection

Eg: the pitch, hesitation, sound produced (onomatopoeia)

All will examine the emotions portrayed by the subject.

The importance of non-verbal interpretation for a teacher

referencesJunaidi, S. N. (2011). Seni Bahasa Badan. Selangor : PTS Professional PublishingSDN BHD.

http: www.creducation.org/resources/nonverbal_communication/

http: www.onitsukahana.blogspot.com.my/2013/02/kemahiran-asas-kaunseling.html?m=1

Responding Skill

1. Structuring skillto prepare a correct tone and to structure a good counselling session.This will include:

1.Role of Counsellor- to listen, to understand, and to help solving whatever problems explained by the subject.

2.Role of client/subject- to freely choose any counselling topics and to freely share the problems related to the topic to the counsellor.

3.Time allocation- within 30 to 45 minutes

2. Minimal guidanceIshamuddin Hj. Ismail (1999) explains the aims of minimal guidance as below:Counsellor to give full attentionTo help client/subject self exploration and evaluationTo assist client to continue telling his/her story/problemTo dominate the conversation/ counselling session

3. Listening skillListen - content- emotions (verbal/non-verbal)

While listening to the content, the counsellor must : - understand the theme of discussion- giving full participation by showing physical signs- always giving attention and prepare to understand client whole- heartedly.

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION SKILLS

DEFINITION

ProblemA matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be dealt with and overcome.(English Oxford Dictionary, 2012)Problem IdentificationThe acknowledgement and definition of an issue that does or may arise during the performance of a process.(Dictionary.com, 2016)

TYPES OF PROBLEMS

a) PERSONAL ISSUES

Personal Issues

1) RELATIONSHIP PROBLEMS

2) FAMILY PROBLEMS

3) EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS

4) HEALTH PROBLEMS

5) ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

b) SELF-MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

c) ACADEMIC PROBLEMS

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION SKILS

OBSERVEObserve the pupils behaviour inside and outside of the classroom.Identify:How they behave towards their family, peers and teachers.Their response when being asked by teachers.Their attitude towards given tasks. Examine for any sudden change of behaviour.

INTERACTEncourage the particular pupils to talk with you.Find a suitable topic which can promote interest for the pupil to talk. Ask necessary questions that would help you to identify the pupils problems.Do not rush into finding out the problems but focus on building good rapport.

REFERRefer to students achievement and report.- to analyze the possible causes.- to identify the starting point of the pupils problems.Identify the problems history from the documents.Refer to other teachers who teach the pupils class.Refer to the classroom teacher.

DISCUSSDiscuss your observation of the pupils with other teachers.- to see whether there is a consistent pattern of behaviour.

Discuss with the parents :- to identify the pupils behaviour at home, health record and other information.

GUIDEConduct a personal guidance session. To allow a further discussion regarding the problems you had identified.To create awareness towards the pupils about the problem they are facing.To suggest possible ways that can help the pupils in solving the problem.

EISENBERG & DELANEY MODEL

The counselor continues to build good relationships with clients.

Counselor must maintain the confidentiality of the information provided by the client.

Counselors need to show that he is empathetic and very concerned about the welfare of their clients.

The counselor can use open questions, reflection, paraphrase, clarification and other basic counseling skills.

Its main purpose is to allow the counselor to understand the client and help clients achieve self-consciousness.

GIBSON AND MITCHELL MODEL

The counselor is responsible for helping and stimulating clients to continue sharing experiences so that a more accurate assessment can be made.

SKILLS IN IMPLEMENTING INTERVENTION

DEFINITIONi)Intervention means to change and develop thinking, feeling and behavior of the troubled individuals to explore, restore and enhance self-confidence.

ii)Intervention is a deliberate process by which change is introduced into peoples' thoughts, feelings and behaviors.Source: Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation

INTRODUCTIONInterventions are usually applied to address a very serious personal problem.For examples: drug abuse, burglary, smoking and bullying.These skills are often used if the client is experiencing harmful emotional and mental stress.Intervention must be carried out in accordance with the type of problems fa

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