topic 4: insolation & temperature energy in earth-atmosphere system: -solar energy - geothermal...

Download Topic 4: Insolation & Temperature Energy in Earth-Atmosphere System: -Solar Energy - Geothermal Energy Solar Radiation: -Electromagnetic Radiation or Radiant

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  • Topic 4: Insolation & Temperature Energy in Earth-Atmosphere System: -Solar Energy - Geothermal Energy Solar Radiation: -Electromagnetic Radiation or Radiant Energy -Insolation -Insolation Patterns
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  • Topic 4: Insolation & Temperature -Insolation Patterns =>Daily Insolation patterns =>Annual Insolation Patterns =>Global Insolation Patterns The Heating of the Earth-Atmosphere System -Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere
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  • Topic 4: Insolation & Temperature The Heating of the Earth-Atmosphere System -Heating and Cooling Processes: =>Radiation, Absorption =>Reflection, Scattering =>Transmission, Conduction =>Convection, Advection =>Adiabatic Cooling & Warming =>Latent Heat
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  • Topic 4: Insolation & Temperature T he Heating of the Earth-Atmosphere System -Atmospheric Energy Budget -Latitudinal Radiation Balance -Land and Water Contrasts Mechanisms of Heat Transfer: -Atmospheric Circulation -Oceanic Circulation
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  • Topic 4: Insolation & Temperature Air Temperature Patterns: -Vertical Air Temperature Patterns: =>Lapse Rates =>Temperature Inversions -Daily & Annual Cycles of Air Temperatures -Global Pattern of Air Temperature Factors in the Variation of Air Temperature
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  • Energy in Earth-Atmosphere System What is energy? Energy is what causes changes in the state or condition of matter: -what causes matter to move? -what causes matter to change direction? -what causes water to change from liquid to vapor?.
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  • Energy in Earth-Atmosphere System The ANSWER to those questions is ENERGY Many types of energy: -Kinetic Energy -Chemical Energy -Radiant Energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can change from one form to another
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  • Energy in Earth-Atmosphere System Two major sources of energy in the earth-atmosphere system: - Solar Energy (99.97%) - Geothermal Energy (0.03%) Solar energy is produced in the sun by thermonuclear reactions (i.e., nuclear fusion of hydrogen to produce helium)
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  • Energy in Earth-Atmosphere System Geothermal energy comes from the interior of the earth and produced by radioactive minerals decay Energy from these sources: - supports life on earth and - drives all atmospheric and weather processes
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  • The Electromagnetic Radiation Radiant energy from the sun is transmitted through space in the form of electromagnetic waves No loss of energy as the waves travel through space Though its intensity continuously drops with increasing distance from the sun because .
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  • The Electromagnetic Radiation Because electromagnetic waves spread out as they travel further away from the sun, thereby losing its intensity
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  • Electromagnetic Waves
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  • The Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic waves are classified according to wavelengths and the electromagnetic spectrum contains various wavelengths Important groups of wavelengths are: -ultraviolet waves (0.01 0.4m) -Visible Light (0.40 0.7 m ) -infrared waves (0.70 - 1000 m)
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  • The Electromagnetic Spectrum
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  • According to Wien's displacement law, the wave length of maximum emission is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of the radiating body Hence, the sun with a surface temperature of over 6000C (11,000F), propagates energy mainly in short waves (i.e.,


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