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  • Toolkit to Combat Smuggling of Migrants

    Tool 9 Prevention of the

    smuggling of migrants

    9

  • Published with the financial support of the European Union.

  • UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME Vienna

    UNITED NATIONS New York, 2010

    Toolkit to Combat Smuggling of Migrants

    Tool 9

    Prevention of the smuggling of migrants

  • ©  United Nations Office  on  Drugs  and  Crime, September  2010. All  rights  reserved.

    The designations employed and the presentation of material  in this publication do not imply  the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory,  city  or  area,  or  of  its  authorities,   or  concerning  the delimitation of  its  frontiers  or  boundaries.

    This  publication has not  been  formally  edited.

    Information  on  uniform  resource  locators  and  links  to  Internet  sites  contained  in  the   present  publication  are  provided  for  the  convenience  of  the  reader  and  are  correct  at  the  time of  issue. The United Nations  takes no  responsibility  for  the continued accuracy of  that   information or  for  the  content  of  any  external website.

    Publishing production: English, Publishing and Library Section, United Nations Office at Vienna.

  • iii

    Contents

    Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

      9.1  Methods of  prevention  in  the  Smuggling of Migrants  Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . .   3

      9.2   Addressing  root  causes  of  the  smuggling of migrants  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5

      9.3   Providing  alternatives:  regular migration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   10

      9.4  Creative  approaches  to  combating  the  smuggling of migrants . . . . . . . . . . . . .   14

      9.5  Measures  relating  to  security  and  control  of  documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   17

      9.6  Raising  awareness  among potential  smuggled migrants  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   22

      9.7  Designing  a  communication  strategy  to  raise  awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   25

      9.8  Use of  standardized data  collection  instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   29

      9.9  Role  of  the media  in  raising  awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   32

    9.10  Role  of  the police  in  raising  awareness   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   35

  • 1

    Overview

    Tool  9,  entitled “Prevention  of  the  smuggling  of  migrants”,  provides  an  overview  of  actions  to  prevent  the  smuggling  of migrants. The first  five  sections  are divided  as  follows:   

    9.1 outlines  the methods of prevention contained  in  the Smuggling of Migrants Protocol; 

    9.2  emphasizes  the  need  to  address  the  root  causes  of  the  smuggling  of  migrants  as  a  necessary  part  of  a  comprehensive  and  long-term  approach  to  preventing  the  phenomenon; 

    9.3 discusses  the provision of  regular migration; 

    9.4  showcases  some  creative  approaches  that  have  been  formulated  to  respond  to  the  smuggling  of migrants; 

    9.5  discusses  the  measures  required  by  the  Smuggling  of  Migrants  Protocol  to  secure  and  control  documents. 

    The  final  five  sections  in  the  chapter  are  concerned  with  the  role  of  awareness-raising  as  a  means of preventing migrants  falling  into the hands of smugglers. These sections are divided  as  follows:

    9.6  offers  some  examples  of  awareness-raising  campaigns; 

    9.7  offers  guidance  on  designing  a  communication  strategy  to  raise  awareness; 

    9.8 stresses the role that standardized data collection can play in strengthening response  to  the  smuggling  of migrants; 

    9.9  offers  some  guidance  to  journalists  and  media  outlets  in  fulfilling  their  important  role  in  preventing  the  smuggling  of migrants; 

    9.10 highlights  the  important  role of  the police  in  reducing  the  crime of  the  smuggling  of migrants  by  offering  guidance  on  crime prevention publicity  campaigns. 

  • 2

  • 3

    9 .1 Methods of prevention in the Smuggling of Migrants Protocol

    Law  enforcement  measures  to  combat  the  smuggling  of  migrants  are  addressed  in Tool  6  and Tool  7.  However,  it  must  be  understood  that  law  enforcement  measures  alone  cannot  prevent  the  smuggling  of  migrants.  Increased  border  control  measures  may  have  the  result  of diverting routes elsewhere, thereby increasing the likelihood of smugglers of migrants using  more  risky  routes  that  may  cause migrants  to  lose  their  lives. 

    If migrants are simply returned to where they came from without consideration for the wider  issues  involved  in  their decision  to migrate,  they may simply attempt another  journey. There  are  important push and pull  factors  that cause a person to become a smuggled migrant and  all must  be  addressed  in  order  for  the  smuggling  of migrants  to  be prevented. 

    By  virtue  of  the Smuggling  of Migrants Protocol,  States  parties  are  required: 

    •  To  strengthen border  controls  (article  11,  paragraph 1)

    •  To  adopt  measures  to  require  commercial  transportation  carriers  to  ascertain  that  all  passengers have the required travel documents, and sanctions for failure to do so (article  11, paragraphs 3  and 4)

    •  To ensure  that  travel  and  identity documents are of  such quality  that  they cannot be  altered or misused  (article  12,  paragraph  (a))

    •  To  ensure  the  security  of  travel  documents  so  that  they  are  not  unlawfully  issued  (article  12,  paragraph  (b))

    •  To  provide  or  strengthen  training  to  prevent  the  smuggling  of  migrants  and  ensure  humane  treatment  of migrants who have been  smuggled  (article  14,  paragraph 1)

    •  To  provide  or  strengthen  public  information  campaigns  on  the  criminal  nature  and  dangers  of  the  smuggling  of migrants  (article  15,  paragraphs  1  and 2)

    •  To promote or strengthen development programmes to combat the root causes of the  smuggling  of migrants  (article  15,  paragraph 3). 

    Recommended resources

    Organized Crime Convention and Smuggling of Migrants Protocol

    The texts of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and  the  Protocol  against  the  Smuggling  of  Migrants  by  Land,  Sea  and Air,  supplementing  the  United  Nations  Convention  against Transnational  Organized  Crime,  are  available  from www.unodc.org. 

  • 4 TOOLKIT  TO COMBAT SMUGGLING OF MIGRANTS

    United Nations. Legislative Guides for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols thereto (Sales No. E.05.V.2).

    The main purpose of the Legislative Guides is to assist States seeking to ratify or imple- ment  the  United  Nations  Convention  against Transnational  Organized  Crime  and  its  supplementary Protocols. The Guides lay out the basic requirements of the Convention  and  the  Protocols  thereto,  as  well  as  the  issues  that  each  State  party  must  address,  while  furnishing  a  range  of  options  and  examples  that  national  drafters  may  wish  to  consider as  they  try  to  implement  the Convention and  its Protocols. The Guides have  been drafted to accommodate different legal traditions and varying levels of institutional  development  and  provide, where  a

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