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Fusion ResearchPrinciples, Experiments and Technology

Do/anPergamon Press

Library of Congress

Cataloging

in Publication

Data

Dolan, Thomas James, 1939Fusion research. Includes indexes. 1. Nuclear fusion. QC791. D84 1980 ISBN O-08-0255855 I. Title. 539.764

80-18383

dedicated to

Charlou Baker Dolan Virginia Fisher Dolan Thomas James Dolan, St-,

I* The atomic weight of hydrogen is not exactly 1, but by careful measurement is found to be 1.0077 . Who could imagine that in this -- which indeed needs some explanation to make slight discrepancy intelligible,-an immense store of possible energy is indicated, which some day, when we have learned how, may become accessible for good or ill to the human race ? . . . If then the whole of any perceptible portion of matter disappeared, the energy resulting would be prodigious. When hydrogen is packed into helium, the whole runs not the slightest risk of disappearing. But seven or eight parts in every 10,000 do disappear. The 1.0077 becomes one. And though the disappearing fraction is small, yet the total of which it is a fraction is so gigantic that the result would put all our other sources of energy to shame. But we have not learned how to pack hydrogen into helium or into any other of the heavier atoms -- as yet. No, not yet. And yet it would appear that it must have been done, some time and somewhere; perhaps in the interior of stars, certainly in ways at present unknown. . . And if ever the human race get hold of a means of tapping even a small fraction of the energy contained in the atoms of their own planet, the consequences will be beneficent or destructive according to the state of civilization at that time attained. I

Sir

Oliver

Lodge,

F.R.S, by

"Putting Scientific

ScientificCopyright

American,@ 1924

May 1924,

the Atom to Work", pages 306-307, 358-359. American, Inc. All rights

reserved.

Next page(s)

left blank

CONTENTSIn the paperback edition Volume I: Volume II: Volume III: Principles Experiments Technology includes includes includes xviixix

chapters chapters chapters

l-10, 11-17, 18-30,

pages 1-272 pages 273-549 pages 550-855

Preface ---------------------"

Acknowledgements -------------

PRIMCIPL ES1, Energy Sources1A. Forms of Energy -----------1B. Energy Demand -------------energy uses relation to standard of living predictions of demand 1C. Energy Sources ------------power flows limits of usable energy 10. Solar Energy --------------1E. Fusion Reactions ----------energy release fusion fuels IF. Fusion Reactors -----------research progress power plants 1G. Summary _____--------------Problems ------------------Bibliography ---__----------

2,1 7

Nuclear Reactions and Coulomb

CollisionsAverages

2A. Distribution

4 6 8 10

141415

Functions and ------_-------__--2B. Cross Sections and Reaction Rat-s -----------_---------monoenergetic beam on stationary target moving target two Maxwellian distributions interactions among like particle5 beam and Maxwellian two colliding beams collision frequency and mean free path 2C. Nuclear Fusion Reaction Rates -----------------_---2D. Power Density and Pressure -

1619

2630

iX

X

Contents2E. Coulomb Collisions ---------basic equations+ evaluation of dp and 6W Coulomb scattering cross section Coulomb logarithm results applications problems -------------------Bibliography ----------------

35

5,

plasma Fundamentals5A. Introduction --------------background fourth state of matter 5B. Electromagnetic Fields and Forces --------------------charge and current densities Maxwell Equations vector and scalar potentials forces on individual particles fluid forces 5C. Kinetic Theory --------------------o--5D. Fluid Equations two-fluid theory ambipolar motion transport coefficients Boltzmann relation MHD equations 5E. Plasma Waves --------------cold plasma model dispersion relation phase and group velocities wave growth and damping cutoffs and resona$ces propagation along B propagation perpendicular to -B 5F. Debye Shielding and Plasma Sheaths -------------------screening of potential from point charge potential variation near wall or probe 56, Quasineutrality -----------plasma behavior 5H. Computer Methods ----------finite difference equations quasiparticle methods problems ------------------Bibliography ------..----__-_

101

104

4648

3,

Atomic Collisions Radiation

and49 51 52 55

3A. Types of Collisions ----------3B. Scattering and Momentum Transfer ---------------------3C. Molecular Collisions ---------3D. Atomic Collision Phenomena ---3E. Equilibrium Degree of Ionization --_----------------equilibrium conditions Saha equation coronal case 3F. Radiation Losses -------------radiation processes approach to coronal equilibrium coronal equilibrium case cyclotron radiation problems --_------------------~Bibliography -----------------

109 110

60

121

62

7072

4, Fusion Reactor Power Balance4A. Conservation Equations -------4B. Equilibrium and Ignition -----equal temperatures and no fuel depletion catalyzed DD reactor ignition impurity effects 73 75

130

133 134

4C.

Energy

Cycle

------------------

79

4D.

4E. 4F. 46. 4H.

simple cycle cycles with direct conversion Required Values of n-rE ------steady state reactors pulsed reactors burnup fraction Mirror Reactors --------------Beam-driven Toroidal Reactors Non-uniform and Time-varying plasmas ---_-----------------~~ spatial variations Comparison of Reactor Types --surrmary problems ---------------------Bibliography --_--------------

85

137 138

689 91 93 96 98100

Gas Discharges and Breakdown6A. Background ----------------6B. Townsend Discharges -------6C. Simplified Breakdown Condition -----------------6D. Other Phenomena Influencing Breakdown -----------------6E. Glow and Arc Discharges ---140 140 143 145 146

Contents6F. Space Charge Limitation Current ---------------------problems -------_------------Bibliography -----------------

xi

of

147 149150

7.

Charged Particle Trajectories7A. 7B. 7C. 7D. Guiding Center Approximation Diamagnetism ----------------Drift Velocities ------------Adiabatic Invariants and _-__---_----Magnetic Mirrors magnetic moment magnetic mirrors other adiabatic invariants 7E. Particle Orbits in Tokamaks -vII >> vl case vII Q vl case summary Problems --------------------BibI iography -----------------

SE, Microinstabilities --------197 types of interactions non-Maxwellian distributions anisotropic distributions gradients and drift waves

8F.

Transport

------w-C-----r---

204

151 154 154 158

161

transport equations additional considerations transport theories random walk model 8G. Confinement Times ---------definitions experimental measurements theoretical estimates Problems c----c---------Bibliography ----------_-_--

210

213215

9, PlasmaHeating166167

8. PlasmaConfinement----------------8A. Introduction means of plasma containment magnetic field shapes thermodynamic equilibrium and plasma equilibrium energy loss mechanisms 88. Magnetic Confinement --------equilibrium conditions magnetic pressure plasma beta divergences 8C. Axisyrnmetric ToroidalEquilibrium ------------------

168

171

175

derivation of Grad-Shafranov Equation properties of the GradShafranov Equation 8D. MHD Instabilities -----------the ball analogy linearized MHD equations eigenvalues example of normal mode analysis energy principle interchange instability types of MHD instabilities ballooning modes tearing modes summary

179

9A. Methods __c_____--_______s__ 217 9B. Ohmic Heating -------------217 increased resistivity electron runaway ---------------219 9C. Compression shock heating adiabatic compression 9D, Charged Particle Injection - 222 charged particle beams plasma guns 9E. Neutral Beam Injection ----- 223 penetration neutral beam ion sources electrodes neutralizer and deflection magnet beam duct and pumping 9F. Wave Heating --------------229 stages of wave heating plasma resonances cavity resonances wave heating problems 233 Problems ---___---__-------Bibliography --------------234

10, Plasma Diagnostics10A. lOB, 1OC. 10D. --------_-----Introduction Electrical Probes ---------Magnetic Flux Measurements Passive Particle Diagnostics electrons and ions charge-exchange neutral atoms neutrons 10E. Active Particle Diagnostics ion beam probes neutral beam probes

237238 - 240 241

245

Xii

Contents1OF. Passive Wave Diagnostics ---photography spectroscopic analysis of hydrogen density impurity radiation spectral line broadening spectral line intensities soft x-ray measurements hard x-ray measurements far-infrared and microwave measurements 1OG. Active Wave Diagnostics ----microwave reflection resonant cavity measuremeasurements plasma refractive index microwave interferometers Mach-Zehnder laser interinterferometers Ashby-Jephcott interferometer quadrature interferometers far-infrared (FIR) interferometers holographic interferometry Faraday rotation Thomson scattering 10H. TFTR Diagnostics -----------1OJ. Summary ------__-------------

247

11F. Field Reversed Mirrors --concept production reactor concepts 1lG. Multiple Mirrors --------configuration steady state mode pulsed mode 11H. Rotating Plasmas --------llJ* cusps --------------------

296

300

302303

253

confinement untrapped particles