timber and timber flooring

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1Timber & Flooring

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ContentsTIMBER -Introduction -Classification -Structure of Tree -Processing of TimberTimber FLOORING -Types of Timer flooring-Advantages-DisadvantagesPhoto Album

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IntroductionTimber means any wood used for carpentry or any engineering purposes. Its an easy to manufacture product.It is a product many designers can choose from.It is used for wood not measuring less than 600mm in girth or circumference of the trunk.3

Types of TimberThere are three types of timber:1) Converted Timber2) Rough Timber3) Standing Timber4

Classification of Trees5TreesHardwoodsConifers [Eg; pine, chirr, fir]ExogenousSoftwoodsDeciduous [Eg; teak, saghwan]Endogenous

Structure of TreeA tree basically consist of three parts, namely trunk, crown and roots. The function of the trunk is to support the crown and to supply water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves through branches and from the leaves back to the roots.6

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Processing of TimberFollowing are the four stages for processing of timber:

(1)Felling of trees (2)Seasoning of timber (3)Conversion of timber(4) Preservation of timber

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Felling of TreesThe age of good trees for felling varies from 50 to 100 years.The trees should be felled when they have just matured or when they are very near to maturity.Method of felling: The tree should be cut from a place a little above its roots and very near to the ground level.Season for felling: the trees should be felled when the sap is at rest.In autumn and spring ,the sap is in vigorous motion.Suitable weather for hilly regions is mid summer for plain areas, the mid winter is proper season.

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Seasoning of TimberMeaning of seasoning: Removing of water from timber which is in the form of sap and moisture is seasoning.Moisture should be extracted at a uniform rate.Remaining moisture should be uniformly distributed throughout.Seasoned timber should be protected from exposure to the rain and excessively high humidity.

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Wood drying (alsoseasoninglumber or woodseasoning) reduces the moisture content of wood before its use. When the drying is done in a kiln, the product is known as kiln-driedtimberor lumber, whereas air drying is the more traditional method.(i) Natural Seasoning: It may be air seasoning or water seasoning. Air seasoning is carried out in a shed with a platform. On about 300 mm high platform timber balks are stacked. After a period of 2 to 4 weeks the timber is taken out. During this period sap contained in the timber is washed out to a great extent. Then timber is stalked in a shed with free air circulation.(ii)Artificial Seasoning: In this method timber is seasoned in a chamber with regulated heat,controlled humidity and proper air circulation. Seasoning can be completed in 4 to 5 days only. Thedifferent methods of seasoning are:(a) Boiling(b) Kiln seasoning(c) Chemical seasoning(d) Electrical seasoning.11

Conversion of TimberProcess by which timber is cut and sawn into suitable sections is known as conversion.Conversion is a skilled art and it should be carried out in such a way that there is minimum wastage of useful timber.

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Preservation of TimberObjectives of preservation of timber:(i)to increase the life of timber structures.(ii)to make the timber structures durable, and (iii) to protect the timber structures from the attack of destroying agencies such as fungi, insects, etc.

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Defects In TimberVarious defects which are likely to occur in timber may be grouped into the following three:(i) Due to natural forces(ii) Due to defective seasoning and conversions.(iii) Due to attack by fungi and insects.16

i) Defects due to Natural Forces: The following defects are caused by natural forces:(a) Knots (b) Shakes(c) Wind cracks (d) Upsets(a) Knots: When a tree grows, many of its branches fall and the stump of these branches in the trunk is covered. In the sawn pieces of timber the stump of fallen branches appear as knots. Knots are dark and hard pieces. Grains are distorted in this portion. If the knot is intact with surrounding wood, it is called live knot. If it is not held firmly it is dead knot.(b) Shakes: The shakes are cracks in the timber which appear due to excessive heat, frost or twisting due to wind during the growth of a tree. Depending upon the shape and the positions shakes can be classified as star shake, cup shake, ring shakes and heart shakes.(c) Wind Cracks: These are the cracks on the outside of a log due to the shrinkage of the exterior surface.(d) Upsets: This type of defect is due to excessive compression in the tree when it was young. Upset is an injury by crushing. This is also known as rupture.17

(ii) Defects due to Defective Seasoning and Conversion If seasoning is not uniform, the converted timber may warp and twist in various directions. Sometimes honey combining and even cracks appear. This type of defects are more susceptible in case of kiln seasoning.In the process of converting timber to commercial sizes and shapes the following types of defects are likely to arise: chip marks, torn grain etc.18

(iii) Defects due to Fungi and Insects AttackFungi are minute microscopic plant organism.They grow in wood if moisture content is more than 20C and exposed to air. Due to fungi attack rotting of wood takes place. Wood becomes weak and stains appear on it.Beetles, marine borers and termites (white ants) are the insects which eat wood and weaken the timber. Some woods like teak have chemicals in their compositions and resist such attacks. Other woods are to be protected by chemical treatment.19

Qualities of Good Timber - Properties of Ideal TimberTimber is one of the commonly used building material in construction. Qualities of Good TimberPreferably dark colourDurableResistactionof fungi and insectsSufficient elastic propertiesSufficiently hardLow wear or tearRetain shape during seasoningSweet smellWhen struck each other aclearringing soundobtainedSufficiently toughResistanceto shockLow water permeabilityResistanceto weathering effectMore workableHard and shine when freshly cut

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21Timber Flooring

IntroductionTimber flooring is also known as wood or plank flooring where generally recycled or reclaimed wooden boards are installed to make flooring in home or officeTimber flooring is commonly also known as planking because it makes use of hard board wood planks. Planking is preferred over many other types of flooring due to the aesthetic appeal it provides to the interiors.The colour and types of wood used rely on the demand and budget of the customer.22

Types of Timber flooringHardwood flooring is known as tongue and groove flooring system which is installed for its wonderful durability and ever lasting beauty.Parquetry Parquetry is another type of timber flooring which is hardwearing and can be avail in two styles that is mosaic and block.23

Strip flooringStrip wooden flooring makes use of wooden planks arranged in narrow tongued and grooved hardboards which are nailed into the timber joists. Laminate flooring Laminate flooring is altogether new to the wooden flooring as it only gives the illusion of wooden floor but quite cheap and durable than wood. Laminate timber flooring doesnt subject to problems like contraction, checking and cup1ping.24

Bamboo flooring Bamboo is chosen more over timber because it grows faster than wood and most economical and environment friendly.

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Advantages of Timber FlooringTimber flooring can withstand huge traffic without replacement and minimal maintenance.It just needs to be re-sanded or re-polished to retain its original lustre and finish.Eco-friendly.Good insulator and hygienicLow maintenance

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Disadvantages of Timber flooringExpensiveMay lose its shine giving dull look.Takes a lot of time to set on the floor.Sometimes slippery and dangerous.27

Timber Flooring Works

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29More pictures

INDIAN TIMBER TREESAINIARJUNAXLEWOODBAMBOODEODARGUAVAMAHOGANYTOONSALSUNDRIJARULTEAKRED CEDARSIRISOAKKATHALGUMARBIJASALBANYANHOPEA30

31Thank You!

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