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Simple Literacy Tools and Supports: Children with Complex Support Needs

Simple Literacy Tools and Supports: Children with Complex Support Needs

Thoughtful Support Strategies:Assistance or Influence?October 22, 2012Afternoon Session

Thoughtful Supports includes:- Presuming Competence and - Fostering IndependenceMeet Carlywww.carlysvoice.com Presuming CompetenceCan you think of moments when a students accomplishment surprised you? Share with a neighbor.

Describe what competence means for one of your students. Student IndependenceWhat does it mean for your students?

Build self-esteemEnhance motivationDevelop sense of purpose Foster social acceptanceAdults available to more students4Independence offers a way for the student to do for themselves. It builds self-esteem. When a student is able to complete a task with minimal assistance, it motivates them to achieve even more. Success breeds success. Accomplishing a small task motivates the student to go for an even bigger goal. Therefore, they have a reason or a purpose for being in school, working on a job, and giving it there best effort.

A student that is able to complete tasks, to cooperate in a team, or to behave in an appropriate manner are more readily accepted by their peers and those within their environment. Often students with disabilities are labeled as unable to complete a task, when the student could complete the task under the right direction and with explicit instruction. Whether the students need focuses on a social skills, an academic task, or a self-help skill, it is important that we help our students learn to work toward independence. Another benefit of independence is that the teacher has more time to focus on instruction. These are some of the reasons why the topic of student independence is so important to our students.

Reference: Fostering Student Independence: How to Develop a Needs Assessment and Fade Plan presented at the Council for Exceptional Children, April 7, 2005 by Janet Hull, Anne Arundel County Public Schools.

Cues and Prompts,Shaping and Fading,

To Build Competence and Enhance Student IndependenceThoughtful Support leads to Student IndependenceWhat is student independence?What does it look like in my setting?What is my role in building student independence?6Prompting and the Prompt HierarchyWhat is a prompt? What is a cue?

When would you use prompts?

Are there consequences to prompting?

Prompt Hierarchy

Natural verbal prompts (The adult says "What do you want?") Verbal prompt ("You want the ball. Push ball on your device.") Modeling (The adult makes the sign for ball, the child imitates) Gestural (Point to the symbol, the student selects, signs, etc.) Physical assistance (Gently nudge the hand toward the symbol, item do not consider this if the child dislikes being touched.) Physical guidance (Physically assist the child to make the sign or select the symbol. Physical guidance is an error-free approach because the child always produces the target skill, although not independently, guaranteeing the childs success. *Do Not use with children who dislike being touched.) http://k-12.pisd.edu/currinst/sped/at/Prompts.htm

8Strategies to build independenceThe Natural Cue

-- Its raining outside

The Imposed Cue

-- What is it doing outside?-- Point to raining9Trainer: Refer participants to Handout #5 depicting the Natural Cycle of Behavior. At the top of our flow-chart you will see an oval with the words Natural or Imposed Cue. This and the next slide will help us understand the difference between a Natural cue and an Imposed cue.

A natural cue is something that occurs naturally that is to prompt a behavior such as the natural cue-Its raining outside. The behavior that is expected would be that the student would seek out their umbrella or rain coat before going outside. Using this natural cue, lets walk through the Natural Cycle of Behavior.

If time, as the participants to think of some other natural cues. Responses may include sun rises so we know that it is time to get up and start our day. If a baby cries we know that it requires attention.Using Natural Cues:Its Raining Outside!Independent Action:Puts on hoodNatural Reinforcer:

Stays Dry!Demonstrates behavior independentlyConnects the natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcerPrompt Hierarchy:

-Draw attention to the natural cues/prompts

-Ask a question about necessary action

-Give an option

-Tell the student what action to take

-Physically guide the student through the process...1998 LRConsultingOR

10Review the Natural Cycle of Behavior flow chart:At the top please note that the natural cue in this case is that Its raining outside. The behavior expectation is that the student will take an umbrella when going outside. One should ask, Does the student perform the skill correctly? If the answer is No one should consider one of the cues/prompts listed in the right-hand side box as a strategy prompting the students appropriate behavior. If the student does perform the appropriate behavior, taking an umbrella, one would progress down the flow chart. The reinforcer would be that the student stays dry. One would then continue down the flow chart and ask, Is the student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer? If no, back we go to the cues/prompts until the student the student can demonstrate the behavior independently.Cues/Prompt examples:Draw attention to the natural cues/prompts in some way (e.g. Look! Its raining outside!)Ask a question about necessary action (e.g. What do you need to take when its raining outside?)Give an option (e.g. Its raining outside, do you need to take a broom or an umbrella?)Tell the student what action to take (e.g. Its raining outside, take your umbrella.)Physically guide the student through the process (e.g. Here let me help you.)

What if the Natural Cue, Its Raining Outside does not become an independent behavior with this student. We may need to try using another one of our strategies for independence which include (as a reminder) modeling, shaping, wait time, reinforcers, and fading. Lets try a fewUsing Natural Cues:When A Peer is Present -Independent Action:Student says HiNatural Reinforcer:

Peer Responds!!!Demonstrates behavior independentlyConnects the natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcerPrompt Hierarchy:

-Draw attention to the natural cues/prompts

-Ask a question about necessary action

-Give an option

-Tell the student what action to take

-Physically guide the student through the process...1998 LRConsultingOR

11Review the Natural Cycle of Behavior flow chart:At the top please note that the natural cue in this case is that Its raining outside. The behavior expectation is that the student will take an umbrella when going outside. One should ask, Does the student perform the skill correctly? If the answer is No one should consider one of the cues/prompts listed in the right-hand side box as a strategy prompting the students appropriate behavior. If the student does perform the appropriate behavior, taking an umbrella, one would progress down the flow chart. The reinforcer would be that the student stays dry. One would then continue down the flow chart and ask, Is the student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer? If no, back we go to the cues/prompts until the student the student can demonstrate the behavior independently.Cues/Prompt examples:Draw attention to the natural cues/prompts in some way (e.g. Look! Its raining outside!)Ask a question about necessary action (e.g. What do you need to take when its raining outside?)Give an option (e.g. Its raining outside, do you need to take a broom or an umbrella?)Tell the student what action to take (e.g. Its raining outside, take your umbrella.)Physically guide the student through the process (e.g. Here let me help you.)

What if the Natural Cue, Its Raining Outside does not become an independent behavior with this student. We may need to try using another one of our strategies for independence which include (as a reminder) modeling, shaping, wait time, reinforcers, and fading. Lets try a fewStrategies to build independenceFading

A gradual reduction of cues/prompts and extrinsic (outside) reinforcers as the student demonstrates desired behavior or task

12Fading is a strategy that offers a gradual reduction of cues/prompts and extrinsic (outside) reinforcers as the student demonstrates the desired behavior or task. For example: David is learning to write his name. The paraeducator started by providing the letters with a starting point and arrows to show the direction to move the pencil. David practiced tracing the letters until he could identify the starting point and correct way to form the letters. Slowly the paraeducator made the starting points and lines lighter and lighter. David is now writing the letters with only a faint image of the starting point.Notice how the C has begun with instruction, then the handwriting cues begin to fade. The star is there to get them started.Fading activityThink of a student who receives adult support.Define the level of prompting from the prompt hierarchy.Develop a plan to reduce the level of prompt required to complete the task.Strategies to build independenceShaping

To teach a behavior or task by providing cues, models, and consequences for steps demonstrated gradually until the final behavior or task is learnedExample:Wider-lined paperNarrower-lined paper

14Next, shaping means to teach a behavior or task by providing cues, models, and consequences for steps demonstrated gradually until the final behavior or task is learned. For example, David is working on writing smaller. The paraeducator provides wider-line