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Thomas Middleton. By Stevie Croisant. Quick Facts. NAME Thomas Middleton OCCUPATION Playwright BIRTH DATE c. April,  1580 DEATH DATE July 4 ,  1627 EDUCATION Queen's College, Oxford PLACE OF BIRTH London, England ,  United Kingdom PLACE OF DEATH - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Thomas Middleton

Thomas MiddletonBy Stevie CroisantQuick Facts

NAMEThomas MiddletonOCCUPATIONPlaywrightBIRTH DATEc. April,1580DEATH DATEJuly 4,1627EDUCATIONQueen's College, OxfordPLACE OF BIRTHLondon, England,United KingdomPLACE OF DEATHNewington Butts, Surrey, England,United Kingdom

Early LifeChristened son of William Middleton and Anne Snow on Aril 18, 1580Was a gentleman bornHis father died when he was 5, mother remarried, lawsuits surrounding his inheritanceMatriculated at Queens College, Oxford in April 1598Left degreeless

Early writings

Published The Wisdom Of Solomon Paraphrased (1597), Micro-Cynicon and Six Snarling Satires (1599)No record of connection to the theater until May 22, 1602Henslowe recorded in his diary a payment made to him for a work called Caesars FallAfter leaving school, switched from elite to popular genresNeeded money after inheritance was lost to HarveyEarning Prestige

May 22, 1602: writing for Shakespeares chief rivals, the Admirals MenCollaborated with Thomas Dekker, Michael Drayton, Anthony Munday, and John WebsterWrote first solo play, The Chester TragedyBoth of the above plays have been lostEarly works belong to genres pioneered by othersBy 1602, established credentials as a commercial playwright Collaborated with same authors, all committed Protestants Had a horrible falling out with Ben Jonson The Wonderful year

Commissioned to write speech at one of the 7 Arches of Triumph to welcome the new monarchFirst surviving play in 1603, The Phoenix , performed in front of the new KingMarried Mary Marbecke, granddaughter of famous English musician and niece of chief physician to Elizabeth IOnly son Edward was born between Nov 1603 to Nov 1604Dekkar and Middleton both survived the bubonic plague of 1603Theaters were closed until April 1604Worked with Dekkar to produce plays to publishers, not theater companies, and write pamphlets again Continued FameBecame an industrious, prolific writerWrote for the Admirals Men and Boys of St. PaulPrimarily wrote citizen comedies from 1602-1607From 1613 to his death, he wrote City of London Pageants for the Lord Mayor and served as the City Chronologer from 1620 until his death while still writing playsAnything done in 1612 is lost or he was inactiveAfter 1613, with The Triumphs of Truths, he never wrote another comedy independently He never lost his lewd, ironic, grounded comic genius, but the later comedies and tragicomedies achieve a wider emotional range and a more complex orchestration of tonesBen Jonsons city comedies were rejected after 1614Only playwright trusted by Shakespeare's company to adapt Shakespeare's plays after his deathCitizen, or city comedy describes a group of Elizabethan and Jacobean plays set in London, and whose characters are mostly common laborers and middle-class tradesmen and merchants. They usually employ benevolent satire of the commercial, bourgeois attitudes, but criticize harshly persons willing to go to any lengths for financial gain. Citizen comedy is typically moral, set out to denounce anyone and anything that may tarnish the name of London.Final YearsBegan his 40th year working on commission for the court and the cityGreatest theatrical triumph was also his lastA Game at Chess performed by the Kings Men only had 9 showings due to the political controversy surrounding the play as the Spanish ambassador had it shut down (Aug 5-14, 1624)The biggest box-office success and most talked-about dramatic work of its era, Middleton's modern history play survives in more manuscripts than any other play and was the first single play printed with engraved title-pagesMiddleton went into hiding after there was a warrant out for his arrest, was released on the grounds that he stop writing for the stageWas no longer allowed to write for the Pageants Wrote smaller works until his deathOn July 4, 1627, Middleton was buried in St. Marys in NewingtonPersonal AchievementMiddleton and Shakespeare were the only writers of the English Renaissance who created plays still considered masterpieces in all four major dramatic genres: comedy, history, tragedy, and tragicomedyMiddleton wrote successful dramatic texts for more theatrical venues than any of his contemporariesHis work was not collected until 1840

The Complete WorksSole AuthorshipPhoenix1603-04)MichaelmasTerm(1605)A Mad World, My Masters(1605-06)A Trick to Catch the Old One(1606)The Puritan(1606)TheRevenger'sTragedy(1606-07)Your Five Gallants(1607)The Second Maiden's Tragedy (1611)No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's(1611)A Chaste Maid inCheapside(1613)The Witch (c. 1613)More Dissemblers besides Women (1615)The Widow (1616)Hengist, King of Kent (1619-20)Women Beware Women (c. 1622)A Game at Chess (1624)CollaborationsThe Family of Love (1602-03)The Honest Whore, Part I (1604)A Yorkshire Tragedy (1605)The Roaring Girl (1611)Wit at Several Weapons (1613)The Nice Valour (1615-16)A Fair Quarrel (1615-17)The Old Law (1618)Anything for a Quiet Life (1621)The Changeling (1622)

Questionable AttributionThe Bloody Banquet (1600)Blurt, Master Constable (1601-02)Timon of Athens (1607-08)The Spanish Gypsy (1623)

74 total works, 30 playsMore on The Roaring GirlFinal dramatic collaboration between Middleton and DekkerMiddleton is said to have written Act II, III.i, IV, and V.ii independentlyMiddleton: terse, witty, cynical dialogue; ironic revelation; secondary sexual meanings. Dekker: overt morals, genial toneTitle derives from the riotous gallants of London known as roaring boysTitle character based on Mary Frith , the real Moll Cutpurse, whose notorious exploits tested proper society and often brought her to courtWearing mens clothes, appearing on stage, drinking, swearing, making immodest speeches, prostitution, pick-pocketing, forgery, pimping, and robbery Frith was arrested on Christmas day as a teen, which may have sparked her fameMiddleton and Dekker were sympathetic to her, play gives her good PR The difference between real and stage Frith is that Middleton and Dekker give her honesty and integrityCrowd would have laughed at the spectacle from a man playing a woman who cross-dressed as a manPerformed at the Fortune TheatreMary Frith died of dropsy in 1659Thomas Middleton and the canon18 sole authored plays, 10 collaborative plays, 2 adaptionsWritten for 7 different play companies8 tragedies, 14 comedies, 2 English histories, 6 tragicomedies Shakespeare: 10 tragedies, 13 comedies, 10 histories, 5 tragicomedies But more than half of Middletons plays have perishedNot just a dramatist: playwright, poet, masque composer, chronologer, pamphleteerNo accurate Middleton canon until the 1990s when Oxford published oneHis canon remained unfixed for so long because many of his works were not attributed him when published4 published anonymously, 4 misattributed to other playwrights. 5 he coauthored were only attributed to the coauthor, 2 assigned to fictitious collaborators, only 1 pamphlet bore his full name on the cover pageDonald P. Jackson, Middleton scholar, said: leave no doubt whatsoever that the core Middleton plays share a highly idiosyncratic linguistic and orthographic profile that is almost as reliable as a guide to identification as actual physiognomy or as fingerprinting. Middleton wrote 4 works with Dekker, 1 with Ford, 5 with Rowley, 1 with Heywood, and 1 with ShakespeareDekker and Middletons works are the only ones scholars have been able to attribute certain scenes to the authorWorks Cited/COnsultedCLEARY, CHRIS. "THE PLAYS OF THOMAS MIDDLETON."TECH. TECH.ORG, 17 DEC. 2001. WEB. 14 APR. 2014.ERNE, LUCAS. ""OUR OTHER SHAKESPEARE": THOMAS MIDDLETON AND THE CANON."JOURNAL OF MODERN PHILOLOGY(2010): 493-505.ACADEMIC SEARCH PREMIER. WEB. 13 APR. 2014.FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY. "THOMAS MIDDLETON'S LIFE AND WORK."THOMAS MIDDLETON. N.P., 2005. WEB. 14 APR. 2014.HENDRICKS, MARGO. "A PAINTER'S EYE: GENDER AND MIDDLETON AND DEKKER'S "THE ROARING GIRL""WOMEN'S STUDIES18 (1990): 191-203.ACADEMIC SEARCH PREMIER. WEB. 12 APR. 2014."Introduction: The Text and Staging."The Roaring Girl. Ed. Paul Mulholland. Manchester, UK: Manchester UP, 1987. 1-43. Print.JOIKEN, ANNIINA. "THE LIFE OF THOMAS MIDDLETON."LUMINARIUM. N.P., 2 JUNE 2006. WEB. 14 APR. 2014AP."THOMAS MIDDLETON."BIOGRAPHY.COM. N.P., 14 APR. 2014. WEB. 2014."THOMAS MIDDLETON."ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA. ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA ONLINE ACADEMIC EDITION. ENCYCLOPDIA BRITANNICA INC., 2014. WEB. 15 APR. 2014.YACHNIN, P. "A GAME AT CHESS THOMAS MIDDLETON'S "PRAISE OF FOLLY""MODERN LANGUAGE QUARTERLY48.2 (1987): 107-23.ACADEMIC SEARCH PREMIER. WEB. 13 APR. 2014.