Third-Party Liability and Insurance Requirements of RPAS

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  • Study on the Third-Party

    Liability and Insurance

    Requirements of

    Remotely Piloted

    Aircraft Systems (RPAS)

    European Commission

    Final Report

    November 2014

    22603201

    SI2.661592

  • Steer Davies Gleave has prepared this work using professional practices and procedures using

    information available to it at the time and as such any new information could alter the validity of the

    results and conclusions made.

    Study on the Third-Party

    Liability and Insurance

    Requirements of

    Remotely Piloted

    Aircraft Systems (RPAS)

    European Commission

    Final Report

    November 2014

    22603201

    SI2.661592

    Prepared by:

    Prepared for:

    Steer Davies Gleave

    28-32 Upper Ground

    London SE1 9PD

    European Commission

    Directorate-General Enterprise and

    Industry

    Brey 09/28

    Avenue d'Auderghem 45

    B1049 Brussels

    Belgium

    +44 (0)20 7910 5000

    www.steerdaviesgleave.com

  • November 2014

    Contents

    Glossary...................................................................................................................................... i

    Disclaimer .................................................................................................................................... ii

    Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................... 1

    1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 5

    The need for this study ................................................................................................................. 5

    Structure of this document........................................................................................................... 5

    2 Methodology...................................................................................................................... 6

    Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 6

    Sources of information ................................................................................................................. 6

    Stakeholder engagement.............................................................................................................. 7

    3 Background: the market for civil use of RPAS .................................................................... 16

    Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 16

    Civilian RPAS products in use ...................................................................................................... 16

    State of the civilian RPAS market in Europe (as of April 2014) .................................................. 18

    The Regulatory context for RPAS operations across Europe ...................................................... 19

    4 Liability ............................................................................................................................ 21

    Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 21

    Some notions of liability ............................................................................................................. 21

    Liability regimes applicable to RPAS in Europe .......................................................................... 22

    Analysis of the efficiency of the framework for RPAS third-party liability ................................. 25

    Views of the stakeholders ............................................................................................................ 3

    Liability regimes in other sectors .................................................................................................. 4

    Assessment of the case for harmonisation of liability regimes for RPAS ..................................... 8

    5 Insurance requirements for RPAS ...................................................................................... 11

    Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 11

    Insurance requirements for RPAS ............................................................................................... 11

    Analysis of the Regulation: insurance requirements .................................................................. 14

    Analysis of the Regulation: Enforcement and compliance ......................................................... 19

    Analysis of the Regulation: scope ............................................................................................... 23

  • November 2014

    International comparison on insurance requirements ............................................................... 28

    6 The RPAS Insurance Market .............................................................................................. 30

    Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 30

    Overview of the insurance market ............................................................................................. 30

    Availability of RPAS insurance .................................................................................................... 30

    Pricing of third-party liability insurance ..................................................................................... 32

    Risk assessments......................................................................................................................... 34

    Risk of insurance market failure ................................................................................................. 35

    Other issues ................................................................................................................................ 36

    International comparison ........................................................................................................... 37

    7 Adequate information needs ............................................................................................ 38

    The importance of information .................................................................................................. 38

    Operational data ......................................................................................................................... 39

    Occurrence reporting ................................................................................................................. 41

    International comparison ........................................................................................................... 46

    8 Conclusions and recommendations ................................................................................... 47

    Liability for damage to third parties ........................................................................................... 47

    Insurance requirements ............................................................................................................. 48

    The RPAS insurance market ........................................................................................................ 49

    Enforcement and compliance ..................................................................................................... 50

    Scope of Regulation 785/2004 ................................................................................................... 51

    Provision of information ............................................................................................................. 52

    Figures

    Figure 2.1: Consultation methodology ............................................................................... 8

    Figure 2.2: Workshop attendees ...................................................................................... 13

    Figure 3.1: Permissions issued by the UK CAA for operations with UAS of up to 20 kg ... 16

    Figure 4.1: Financial implications of liability and insurance ............................................. 22

    Figure 4.2: Comparison of different types of liability from the victims viewpoint.......... 26

    Figure 4.3: Interactions in RPAS operations ..................................................................... 27

  • November 2014

    Figure 4.4: RPAS claim processes ...................................................................................... 29

    Figure 5.1: MTOM bands as per Regulation 785/2004 ..................................................... 13

    Figure 5.2: Third party liability insurance cover purchased in different industries .......... 18

    Figure 5.3: The problem with no common definition of model aircraft........................... 26

    Figure 6.1: Third-party liability premiums for RPAS ......................................................... 33

    Figure 7.1: Accident rates for different aircraft categories .............................................. 43

    Tables

    Table 2.1: Information sources .................................................................................................. 6

    Table 2.2: Key themes addressed by stakeholder category .......................

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