The Younger Edda - 8chan younger edda: also called snorre's edda, or the prose edda by snorri sturluson

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  • ContentsPREFACEINTRODUCTIONFOREWORDTHEFOOLINGOFGYLFE

    CHAPTERI:GEFJUNSPLOWINGCHAPTERII:GYLFESJOURNEYTOASGARDCHAPTERIII:OFTHEHIGHESTGODCHAPTERIV:THECREATIONOFTHEWORLDCHAPTERV:THECREATION(CONTINUED)CHAPTERVI:THEFIRSTWORKSOFTHEASAS.THEGOLDENAGECHAPTERVII:ONTHEWONDERFULTHINGSINHEAVENCHAPTERVIII:THEASASCHAPTERIX:LOKEANDHISOFFSPRINGCHAPTERX:THEGODDESSES(ASYNJES)CHAPTERXI:THEGIANTESSGERDANDSKIRNERSJOURNEYCHAPTERXII:LIFEINVALHALCHAPTERXIII:ODINSHORSEANDFREYSSHIPCHAPTERXIV:THORSADVENTURESCHAPTERXV:THEDEATHOFBALDERCHAPTERXVI:RAGNAROKCHAPTERXVII:REGENERATIONAFTERWORDTOTHEFOOLINGOFGYLFE

    BRAGESTALKCHAPTERI:GERSJOURNEYTOASGARDCHAPTERII:IDUNANDHERAPPLESCHAPTERIII:HOWNJORDGOTSKADETOWIFECHAPTERIV:THEORIGINOFPOETRYAFTERWORDTOBRAGESTALK

    EXTRACTSFROMTHEPOETICALDICTIONTHORANDHRUNGNERTHORSJOURNEYTOGEIRRODSIDUNGERSFEASTLOKESWAGERWITHTHEDWARFSTHENIFLUNGSANDGJUKUNGSMENJAANDFENJATHEGROTTESONGROLFKRAKEHOGNEANDHILD

    NOTESENEAHERIKONTHEHISTORICALODINFORNJOTANDTHESETTLEMENTOFNORWAY

  • NOTESTOTHEFOOLINGOFGYLFECHAPTERICHAPTERIICHAPTERIIICHAPTERIVCHAPTERVCHAPTERVICHAPTERVIICHAPTERVIIICHAPTERIXCHAPTERXCHAPTERXICHAPTERXIICHAPTERXIIICHAPTERXIVCHAPTERXV

    NOTEONTHENIFLUNGSANDGJUKUNGSNOTEONMENJAANDFENJAWHYTHESEAISSALT

    VOCABULARY

  • THEYOUNGEREDDA:

    ALSOCALLED

    SNORRE'SEDDA,ORTHEPROSEEDDA

    BYSNORRISTURLUSON

  • SnorriSturluson(11791241)

    TheYoungerEdda

    FirstPublishedin1901

    Stolen&deliveredby[DerHammer]

    Formorematerial,followuson:Twitter:Twitter.com/HammerDer

    Kickass.to:Kickass.to/user/DerHammer

    https://twitter.com/HammerDerhttps://kickass.to/user/DerHammer/

  • TO

    HON.THOS.F.BAYARD,

    AMBASSADORTOTHECOURTOFST.JAMES,INGRATEFULRECOLLECTIONOFPLEASANTOFFICIALRELATIONS

  • PREFACE

    Inthebeginning,beforetheheavenandtheearthandtheseawerecreated,thegreatabyssGinungagapwaswithoutformandvoid,andthespiritofFimbultyrmoveduponthefaceofthedeep,untiltheice-coldrivers, theElivogs,flowingfromNiflheim,cameincontactwith thedazzlingflamesfromMuspelheim.ThiswasbeforeChaos.

    AndFimbultyrsaid:Letthemelteddropsofvaporquickenintolife,andthegiantYmerwasborninthemidstofGinungagap.Hewasnotagod,butthefatherofalltheraceofevilgiants.ThiswasChaos.

    AndFimbultyr said:LetYmerbe slain and let orderbe established.And straightwayOdin andhisbrothersthe bright sons of Buregave Ymer a mortal wound, and from his body made they theuniverse;fromhisflesh, theearth;fromhisblood, thesea;fromhisbones, therocks;fromhishair, thetrees;fromhisskull,thevaultedheavens;fromhiseye-brows,thebulwarkcalledMidgard.Andthegodsformedmanandwomanintheirownimageoftwotrees,andbreathedintothemthebreathoflife.AskandEmblabecamelivingsouls,andtheyreceivedagardeninMidgardasadwelling-placefor themselvesandtheirchildrenuntiltheendoftime.ThiswasCosmos.

    The worlds last day approaches. All bonds and fetters that bound the forces of heaven and earthtogetheraresevered,andthepowersofgoodandofevilarebroughttogetherinaninternecinefeud.LokeadvanceswiththeFenris-wolfandtheMidgard-serpent,hisownchildren,withallthehostsofthegiants,andwith Surt,who flings fire and flame over theworld.Odin advanceswith all the asas and all theblessedeinherjes.Theymeet,contend,andfall.ThewolfswallowsOdin,butVidar,theSilent,setshisfootuponthemonsterslowerjaw,heseizestheotherwithhishand,andthusrendshimtillhedies.FreyencountersSurt,andterribleblowsaregivenereFreyfalls.HeimdalandLokefightandkilleachother,and so do Tyr and the dog Garm from the Gnipa Cave. Asa-Thor fells theMidgard-serpent with hisMjolner,butheretreatsonlyninepaceswhenhehimselffallsdead,suffocatedbytheserpentsvenom.ThensmokewreathesuparoundtheashYgdrasil,thehighflamesplayagainsttheheavens,thegravesofthegods,ofthegiantsandofmenareswallowedupbythesea,andtheendhascome.ThisisRagnarok,thetwilightofthegods.

    But the radiant dawn follows the night. The earth, completely green, rises again from the sea, andwhere themewshavebut justbeen rockingon restlesswaves, rich fieldsunplowedandunsown,nowwavetheirgoldenharvestsbeforethegentlebreezes.Theasasawaketoanewlife,Balderiswiththemagain.ThencomesthemightyFimbultyr,thegodwhoisfromeverlastingtoeverlasting;thegodwhomtheEdda skald dared not name. The god of gods comes to the asas.He comes to the great judgment andgathersallthegoodintoGimletodwellthereforever,andevermoredelightsenjoy;buttheperjurersandmurderers and adulterers he sends to Nastrand, that terrible hall, to be torn by Nidhug until they arepurgedfromtheirwickedness.ThisisRegeneration.

    ThesearetheoutlinesoftheTeutonicreligion.SuchwerethedoctrinesestablishedbyOdinamongourancestors.ThusdowefinditrecordedintheEddasofIceland.

    ThepresentvolumecontainsalloftheYoungerEddathatcanpossiblybeofanyimportancetoEnglishreaders.Infact,itgivesmorethanhaseverbeforebeenpresentedinanytranslationintoEnglish,GermanoranyofthemodernScandinaviantongues.

    WewouldrecommendourreaderstoomittheForewordsandAfterwordsuntiltheyhaveperusedtheFoolingofGylfeandBragesSpeech.TheForewordsandAfterwords,itwillreadilybeseen,arewrittenbyalaterandlessskillfulhand,andweshouldbesorrytohaveanyonelaythebookasideandlosethe

  • pleasureofreadingSnorresandOlafscharmingwork,becausehebecamedisgustedwithwhatseemedto himmere silly twaddle.And yet theseForewords andAfterwords become interesting enoughwhentakenup inconnectionwithastudyof thehistoricalanthropomorphizedOdin.Withaviewofgivingapretty complete outline of the founder of the Teutonic race we have in our notes given all theHeimskringla sketch of theBlackSeaOdin.Wehave done this, not only on account of thematerial itfurnishesasthegroundworkofaTeutonicepic,whichwetrustthemuseswillerelongdirectsomeonetowrite,butalsoonaccountof thevividpicture itgivesofTeutonic lifeasshapedandcontrolledbytheOdinicfaith.

    AllthepoemsquotedintheYoungerEddahaveinthiseditionbeentracedbacktotheirsourcesintheElderEddaandelsewhere.

    Wherethenotesseemtothereaderinsufficient,wemustreferhimtoourNorseMythology,wherehewill,wetrust,findmuchoftheadditionalinformationhemaydesire.

    Wellawarethatourworkhasmanyimperfections,andbeggingourreaderstodealgenerouslywithourshortcomings, we send the book out into the world with the hope that it may aid some young son ordaughterofOdintofindhiswaytothefountainsofUrdandMimerandtoIdunsrejuvenatingapples.Thesonmustnotsquander,buthusbandwisely,whathisfatherhasaccumulated.Theracemustcherishandholdfastandaddtothethought that thepasthasbequeathedtoit.Thusdoesitgrowgreaterandricherwitheachnewgeneration.Thepastisthemirrorthatreflectsthefuture.

    R.B.ANDERSONUniversityofWisconsin,Madison,Wis.,September,1879.

  • INTRODUCTION

    TherecordsofourTeutonicpasthavehithertoreceivedbutslightattentionfromtheEnglish-speakingbranchofthegreatworld-ashYgdrasil.Thisindifferenceisthemoredeplorable,sinceaknowledgeofourheroicforefatherswouldnaturallyoperateasamostpowerfulmeansofkeepingaliveamongus,andour posterity, that spirit of courage, enterprise and independence for which the old Teutons were sodistinguished.

    Thereligionofourancestorsformsan importantchapter in thehistoryof thechildhoodofourrace,and this fact has induced us to offer the public an English translation of the Eddas. The purelymythologicalportionoftheElderEddawastranslatedandpublishedbyA.S.Cottle,inBristol,in1797,and thewholeworkwas translatedbyBenjaminThorpe,andpublished inLondon in1866.Both theseworksarenowoutofprint.OftheYoungerEddawehavelikewisehadtwotranslationsintoEnglish,thefirstbyDasentin1842,thesecondbyBlackwell,inhiseditionofMalletsNorthernAntiquities,in1847.Theformerhaslongbeenoutofprint,thelatterisapoorimitationofDasents.Bothofthemareveryincomplete.ThesefourbooksconstitutealltheEddaliteraturewehavehadintheEnglishlanguage,excepting, of course, single lays and chapters translated by Gray, Henderson, W. Taylor, Herbert,Jamieson,Pigott,WilliamandMaryHowitt,andothers.

    TheYoungerEdda(alsocalledSnorresEdda,ortheProseEdda),ofwhichwenowhavethepleasureofpresentingourreadersanEnglishversion,contains,asusuallypublishedintheoriginal,thefollowingdivisions:

    1.TheForeword.2.Gylfaginning(TheFoolingofGylfe).3.TheAfterwordtoGylfaginning.4.BragesSpeech.5.TheAfterword.6.Skaldskaparmal(acollectionofpoeticparaphrases,anddenominationsinSkaldiclanguagewithout

    paraphrases).7.Hattatal(anenumerationofmetres;asortofClavisMetrica).In some editions there are also found six additional chapters on the alphabet, grammar, figures of

    speech,etc.TherearethreeimportantparchmentmanuscriptsoftheYoungerEdda,viz:1.CodexRegius,theso-calledKingsBook.ThiswaspresentedtotheRoyalLibraryinCopenhagen,

    byBishopBrynjulfSveinsson,intheyear1640,whereitisstillkept.2.CodexWormianus.This is found in theUniversityLibrary inCopenhagen, in theArneMagnan

    collection. It takes its name fromProfessorOleWorm [died 1654], towhom itwas presented by thelearned Arngrim Jonsson. ChristianWorm, the grandson of Ole Worm, and Bishop of Seeland [died1737],afterwardpresentedittoArneMagnusson.

    3.CodexUpsaliensis.ThisispreservedintheUpsalaUniversityLibrary.Liketheothertwo,itwasfoundinIceland,whereitwasgiventoJonRugmann.LateritfellintothehandsofCountMagnusGabrielde la Gardie, who in the year 1669 presented it to the Upsala University. Besides these three chiefdocuments,thereexistfourfragmentaryparchments,andalargenumberofpapermanuscripts.

    The first printed editionof theYoungerEdda, in theoriginal, is the celebrated Edda Islandorum,publishedbyPeterJohannesResen,inCopenhagen,intheyear1665.ItcontainsatranslationintoLatin,

  • made partly by Resen himself, and partly also by Magnus Olafsson, Stephan Olafsson and ThormodTorfason.

    Not until eighty years later, that is in 1746, did the second edition of theYounger Edda appear inUpsalaundertheauspicesofJohannesGoransson.ThiswasprintedfromtheCodexUpsaliensis.

    InthepresentcenturywefindathirdeditionbyRasmusRask,publishedinStockholmin1818.Thisisverycompleteandcritical.ThefourtheditionwasissuedbySveinbjornEgilsson,inReykjavik,1849;thefifthbytheArne-MagnanCommissioninCopenhagen,1852.[Thethirdvolumeofthisworkhasnotyetappeared.]Allthesefiveeditionshavelongbeenoutofprint,andinplaceofthemwehaveasixtheditionbyThorleifJonsson(Copenhagen,1875),andaseventhbyErnstWilkin(Paderborn,1877).Bothofthese,andespeciallythelatter,arethoroughlycriticalandreliable.

    Of translations, we must mention in addition to those into English by Dasent and Blackwell, R.Nyerups translation into Danish (Copenhagen, 1808); Karl Simrocks into German (Stuttgart andTbingen, 1851); and Fr. Bergmanns into French (Paris, 1871). Among the chief authorities to beconsulted in the studyof theYoungerEddamaybenamed, in addition to those alreadymentioned,Fr.Dietrich,Th.Mobius,Fr.Pfeiffer,Ludw.Ettmuller,K.Hildebrand,Ludw.Uhland,P.E.Muller,AdolfHolzmann, SophusBugge, P.A.Munch andRudolphKeyser. For thematerial in our introduction andnotes, we are chiefly indebted to Simrock,Wilkin andKeyser.Whilewe have had no opportunity ofmakingoriginal researches, thepublishedworkshavebeencarefully studied,andallweclaimforourworkis,thatitshallcontaintheresultsofthelatestandmostthoroughinvestigationsbyscholarswholivenearerthefountainsofUrdandMimerthandowe.OurtranslationsaremadefromEgilssons,JonssonsandWilkinseditionsof theoriginal.Wehavenot translatedanyof theHattatal,andonly thenarrativepartofSkaldskaparmal,andyetourversioncontainsmoreoftheYoungerEddathananyEnglish,German,FrenchorDanishtranslationthathashithertobeenpublished.Thepartsomittedcannotpossiblybeofanyinteresttoanyonewhocannotreadthemintheoriginal.Alltheparaphrasesoftheasasandasynjes,oftheworld,theearth,thesea,thesun,thewind,fire,summer,man,woman,gold,ofwar,arms,ofaship,emperor,king,ruler,etc.,areofinterestonlyastheyhelptoexplainpassagesofOldNorsepoems.Thesameistrueoftheenumerationofmetres,whichcontainsanumberofepithetsandmetaphorsusedbythescalds, illustratedbyspecimensoftheirpoetry,andalsobyapoemofSnorreSturleson,writteninonehundreddifferentmetres.

    Therehasbeen agreat deal of learneddiscussion in regard to the authorshipof theYoungerEdda.Readers specially interested in this knotty subject we must refer to Wilkins elaborate treatise,UntersuchungenzurSnorraEdda (Paderborn, 1878), and toP.E.Mullers,Diechtheit derAsalehre(Copenhagen,1811).

    TwocelebratednamesthatwithoutdoubtareintimatelyconnectedwiththeworkareSnorreSturlesonandOlafThordssonHvitaskald.Bothof these are conspicuous, notonly in the literary, but also in thepoliticalhistoryofIceland.

    SnorreSturleson[Keyser]wasborninIcelandintheyear1178.Threeyearsold,hecametothehouseofthedistinguishedchief,JonLoptsson,atOdde,agrandsonofSmundtheWise,thereputedcollectoroftheElderEdda,whereheappears tohaveremaineduntil JonLoptssonsdeath, in theyear1197.Soonafterward Snorre married into a wealthy family, and in a short time he became one of the mostdistinguishedleadersinIceland,Hewasseveral timeselectedchiefmagistrate,andnomaninthelandwashisequalinrichesandprominence.Heandhistwoelderbrothers,ThordandSighvat,whowerebutlittle inferior tohim inwealth andpower,were at one timewell-nigh supreme in Iceland, andSnorresometimes appeared at the Althing at Thingvols accompanied by from eight hundred to nine hundredarmedmen.

    Snorre andhisbrothersdidnotonlyhavebitter feudswithother families, but adeadlyhatred alsoarosebetweenthemselves,makingtheirlivesaperpetualwarfare.Snorrewasshrewdasapoliticianand

  • magistrate,andeminentasanoratorandskald,buthispassionsweremean,andmanyofhiswayswerecrooked.Hewasbothambitiousandavaricious.HeissaidtohavebeenthefirstIcelanderwholaidplanstosubjugatehisfatherlandtoNorway,andinthisconnectionissupposedtohaveexpectedtobecomeajarl under the king of Norway. In this effort he found himself outwitted by his brothers son, SturleThordsson,andthushecameintohostilerelationswith the latter. In thisfeudSnorrewasdefeated,butwhenSturleshortlyafterfellinabattleagainsthisfoes,Snorresstarofhoperoseagain,andhebegantooccupyhimselfwithfar-reaching,ambitiousplans.Hehadbeenfor thefirst timeinNorwayduringtheyears1218-1220,andhadbeenwellreceivedbyKingHakon,andespeciallybyJarlSkule,whowasthenthemostinfluentialmaninthecountry.Intheyear1237SnorrevisitedNorwayagain,andentered,asitisbelieved, into treasonable conspiracieswith Jarl Skule. In 1239 he leftNorway against thewishes ofKingHakon,whomheowedobedience,andtherebyincurredthekingsgreatestdispleasure.WhenKingHakon, in 1240, had crushed Skules rebellion and annihilated this dangerous opponent, it becameSnorres turn to feel theeffectsof thekingswrath.At the instigationofKingHakon, severalchiefsofIceland united themselves against Snorre and murdered him at Reykholt, where ruins of his splendidmansionarestilltobeseen.Thiseventtookplaceonthe22dofSeptember,1241,andSnorreSturlesonwasthensixty-threeyearsold.SnorrewasIcelandsmostdistinguishedskaldandsagaman.Asawriterofhistory he deserves to be compared with Herodotos or Thukydides. His Heimskringla, embracing anelaboratehistoryofthekingsofNorway,isfamousthroughoutthecivilizedworld,andEmersoncallsittheIliadandOdysseyofourrace.AnEnglishtranslationofthisworkwaspublishedbySamuelLaing,inLondon,in1844.CarlylesEarlyKingsofNorway(London,1875)wasinspiredbytheHeimskringla.

    OlafThordsson,surnamedHvitaskald,[WhiteSkald]todistinguishhimfromhiscontemporary,OlafSvartaskald,[BlackSkald]wasasonofSnorresbrother.Thoughnotasprominentandinfl...