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This dissertation seeks to determine the main features of the Buddhist thought of K'uei-chi, First Patriarch of the Fa-hsiang School of Chinese Buddhism, and further to establish his position as a key figure in the transmission of Indian philosophical traditions into China. In addition, it provides a translation of an original essay written by K'uei-chi on Vij

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THE VIJNAPTIMATRATA BUDDHISM OF THE CHINESE MONK K'UEI-CHI (A.D. 632-682)

ALAN SPONBERG

B.A. , American U n i v e r s i t y , 1968 M.A. , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1972

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

IN;

THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f A s i a n Studies

We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as

conforming

t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard.

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1979 A l a n Sponberg, 1979

In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Librar y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n

of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.

Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5

DE-6

BP

75-51 1 E

ABSTRACT

The

d i s s e r t a t i o n seeks t o determine the main f e a t u r e s

of

the Buddhist thought o f K ' u e i - c h i , F i r s t P a t r i a r c h o f the School

F a - h s i a n g

o f East A s i a n Buddhism, and t o f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h h i s p o s i t i o n f i g u r e i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n of Indian p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n s a t r a n s l a t i o n o f an original

as a key

i n t o China.. In a d d i t i o n i t p r o v i d e s

essay w r i t t e n "by K ' u e i - c h i on V i j n a p t i m a t r a t a . (Mere the fundamental p h i l o s o p h i c p r i n c i p l e o f the School Buddhism t o which he was There are two heir.

Conceptualization) o f Yogacara

p a r t s t o the d i s s e r t a t i o n : P a r t One comprising Chapts. IV and V.

comprising In P a r t One,

Chapts. I - I I I and P a r t Two the f i r s t chapter life,

summarizes the b i o g r a p h i c a l data a v a i l a b l e on d i s c u s s i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r h i s r o l e as t r a n s l a t o r and his

K ' u e i - c h i ' s exegete, and

a l s o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these a c t i v i t i e s and Chapt. I I d i s c u s s e s K ' u e i - c h i ' s

personal r e l i g i o u s l i f e . works, p o i n t i n g out interests.

written

a number o f f e a t u r e s t h a t i n d i c a t e h i s s p e c i a l annotated a n a l y s i s o f a l l h i s a survey o f the main d o c t r i n e s As

I t i n c l u d e s a d e t a i l e d and Chapt. I l l p r e s e n t s

s u r v i v i n g works.

o f the V i j n a p t i m a t r a t a Yogacara s c h o o l o f Asafiga and Vasubandhu. one b r a n c h o f Mahayana Buddhism, the. s c h o o l i s shown t o be s o t e r i o l o g y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an best

u n d e r s t o o d as a s y s t e m a t i c on the e p i s t e m i c o f experience K ' u e i - c h i ' s

emphasis constituents

r a t h e r t h a n the o n t o l o g i c a n a l y s i s o f the T h i s chapter

(dhamas).

concludes wit h a d i s c u s s i o n o f

s i g n i f i c a n c e as a major f i g u r e i n the development o f

iii

Buddhist

thought i n E a s t A s i a .

He i s p r e s e n t e d

as a s y n c r e t i s t who

sought t o o r g a n i z e a m a n i f o l d and complex t r a d i t i o n i n a manner t h a t would a l l o w i t s t r a n s m i s s i o n i n t o a v e r y d i f f e r e n t cultural from of Doctrines context.

P a r t Two c o n s i s t s o f a t r a n s l a t i o n o f one essay K ' u e i - c h i ' s voluminous d o c t r i n a l compendium, t h e Forest

in the Garden of the Dharma of Mahayana Buddhism (Ta-sheng fa-yuani-lin ohang). Chapt. IV p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e work, o u t -

l i n i n g t h e commentaries used, b o t h contemporary and modern, and discussing the methodological text. problems c o n f r o n t e d i n t r a n s l a t i n g t h e

Chapter V i s t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f : K ' u e i - c h i ' s "Essay on (Wei-shih chang) i n t e n s e c t i o n s . It includes

Vijnaptimatrata"

extensive annotation

i n d i c a t i n g t h e sources

o f t h e i d e a s K ' u e i - c h i Buddhist

d i s c u s s e s and p r o v i d i n g supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n on the many d o c t r i n e s t o which he r e f e r s .

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page Abstract i i

PART ONE: K'UEI-CHI, THE MAN AND HIS THOUGHT Chapter I. BIOGRAPHY F a m i l y and C h i l d h o o d A t t r a c t i o n t o Buddhism K ' u e i - c h i and Hsuan-tsang 2 k 6 8 11 Scholarship 11 l6

K ' u e i - c h i , t h e Exegete Q u a l i t y o f K ' u e i - c h i ' s Personal Religious Life

II.

K'UEI-CHI'S WRITTEN WORKS An A n a l y s i s o f t h e S u r v i v i n g Works Discussion

21 2k 32 37 38 39 39 hO k2 k3

III.

K'UEI-CHI AND YOGACARA YOGACARA IN INDIA AND CHINA VIJNAPTIMATRATA Atman and Dharmas T r i s v a b h a v a t a : t h e Three A s p e c t s o f Own-being Vijnaptimatrata vs. Cittamatrata i n l a t e r Yogacara Vijnana and V i j n a p t i

YOGACARA PSYCHOLOGY The E i g h t Modes o f Mental A c t i v i t y Alaya and Atman

50 51 57 60 6l 6l 6k . 6U 65 67

The Components o f P e r c e p t i o n THE PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENT The F i v e Stages o f Sanct i f i c a t i o n The Yogacara Conception o f N i r v a n a K'UEI-CHI'S CONTRIBUTION Doctrinal Classification The F i v e - l e v e l Contemplation o f Vijnaptimatrata

PART

TWO

TRANSLATION OF "THE ESSAY ON VIJNAPTIMATRAT&"

IV.

INTRODUCTION TO THE TRANSLATION The Commentaries Methodological Considerations

TO 70 72 79 79

V.

K'UEI-CHI'S "ESSAY ON V I J N A P T I M A T R A T S " [Preface] Section 1. . E x p o s i t i o n o f t h e Substance 2. 3. h. 5. C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f t h e Term Explanation of the D i s t i n c t i o n s and t h e U n i t y Which Mode o f M e n t a t i o n the Contemplation? the Classes Performs '

80 103 108 118 120

C l a r i f y i n g what D i s t i n g u i s h e s

vi

6. 7. 8.' 9. 10.

The Stages o f C u l t i v a t i n g R e a l i z a t i o n Of What Nature i s t h e Dharma '.Contemplation*? The S t a t i o n s and t h e Base o f A r i s i n g S e v e r i n g t h e O b s t a c l e s and D e f i l e m e n t s T u r n i n g t o and Embracing t h e Two Emptinesses

... .

127

137 . . . . . . . ikk 151 158

NOTES CHAPTER I CHAPTER I I CHAPTER I I I CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V ABBREVIATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY 162 167 171 175 176 215

217

1

PART ONE: K'UEI-CHI, THE MAN AND HIS THOUGHT

Chapter

I

BIOGRAPHY

The

Chinese Buddhist monk K'uei-- c h i ^ j j f

(A.D.

632-682), was one of

w h i l e r e m a i n i n g as y e t r e l a t i v e l y unknown i n t h e West, the most prominent who f i g u r e s among t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c

intelligentsia

were a t t r a c t e d t o Buddhism d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f the T'ang (A.D. 618-907). The b e g i n n i n g o f the 7 t h c e n t u r y had seen

Dynasty

the f o u n d i n g o f a new

Chinese empire a f t e r 5 0 0 y e a r s o f i n t e r n a l united. I t was a

s t r i f e and d i s c o r d ; f i n a l l y once a g a i n China was time when the Chinese c o u r t was

becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y more i n t e r e s t e d f r o n t i e r , and when Buddhist day. activities thought

i n the r e g i o n s beyond i t s western was

r a p i d l y / b e c o m i n g the f a s h i o n o f the

K ' u e i - c h i ' s prominence stems from the two major of h i s l i f e :

h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t r a n s l a t i o n p r o j e c t , s p o n s o r e d by- 626-6H9),a n < i

the T'ang Emperor T ' a i - t s u n g

hi

s

later

p r o d i g i o u s l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y as a t e x t u a l commentator and f o r m u l a t o r o f what was East A s i a . t o become the orthodox v e r s i o n o f Yogacara Buddhism i n

Both o f these a c t i v i t i e s were t h e consequence o f h i s l o n g ^

a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e famous Chinese Buddhist p i l g r i m Hsuan-tsang(ca. 596-661+) .2

In A.D.

61+55 when K ' u e i - c h i was

t h i r t e e n y e a r s o l d , Hsuan- and

t s a n g r e t u r n e d t o the T'ang c a p i t a l from s i x t e e n y e a r s o f t r a v e l study i n the major Buddhist monastic c e n t e r s and u n i v e r s i t i e s o f

3

C e n t r a l A s i a and I n d i a . for

Buddhism had been growing

s t e a d i l y i n China

s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s by t h i s t i m e , but among Hsuan-tsang's n a t i v e

Chinese contemporaries t h e r e were none who c o u l d r i v a l h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e I n d i a n o r i g i n s o f Buddhism. From h i s l o n g r e s i d e n c e at t h e back

famous Buddhist m o n a s t e r y - u n i v e r s i t y at Nalanda he had brought a p r o f o u n d mastery o f Indian s c h o l a s t i c

p