the veins introduction the pulmonary veins the systematic veins
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THE VEINSIntroductionThe Pulmonary Veins The Systematic Veins
Veins normally accompany arteries and often have similar names.Veins are always larger than the arteries and are sometimes more visible than arteries because they are closer to the skin surface.Most veins eventually empty the un-oxygenated blood into the vena cavas.
The VeinsGeneral featureThin walls, larger lumens, venous valves, venous plexus, venous reteTwo sets Superficial vein Deep veinsSpecial structures: Sinuses of dura mater Diploic veins
The VeinsComposition The pulmonary veinsR. & L. superior & inferior pulmonary veins left atriumThe systemic veins Superior vena cava system Inferior vena cava system (hepatic portal system ) Cardiac vein systemright atrium
The head, neck, upper limb and the thoracic cavity return blood to to the right atrium of the heart via the superior vena cava.The lower limb, abdominal and plevis cavity return blood to the right atrium of the heart via the inferior vena cava.
Before blood is returned to the heart from the stomach, pancreas, small intestine, and spleen, it goes through the liver for filtration.
This portion of this part of systemic system is known as the hepatic portal system.The gastric vein (stomach), splenic vein (spleen), pancreatic vein (pancreas), and mesenteric veins (small intestines) empty into the portal vein that carries the blood to the liver.
In the liver, the portal vein branches into smaller venules and finally into capillary beds.In the capillary beds of the liver, nutrients are exchanged for storage and the blood is purified.The capillaries then join into venules that empty into the hepatic vein, which carries blood to the inferior vena cava.
A. IntroductionThe Recurrent Factors of the Blood in Veins The venous valves. The dilation of the ventricles of the heart. The negative pressure of the thoracic cavity. The movements of the viscera. The impulses of the artery. the continuous blood flow from capillaries.
B. The Pulmonary Veins Pulmonary Veins 1. Right superior pulmonary v. 2. Right inferior pulmonary v3. Left superior pulmonary v. 4. Left inferior pulmonary v. the above all left ventricle
C. The Systematic Veins1. The superior vena caval system 2. The inferior vena caval system
C. The Systematic Veins The superior vena caval system Head & neck
Upperlimbinternal jugular v.Subclavian v. VenousangleBrachio-cephalic v.
Veins of head and neck Facial veinBegins at medial angle of eye (angular vein)Runs downward and backward through the face, posterior to the facial arteryBelow angle of mandible, joins anterior branch of retromandibular vein to form common facial vein, which drains into internal jugular vein
Veins of head and neckFacial veinConnections with cavernous sinus through the ophthalmic vein , and also through pteygoid venous plexus via the deep facial vein
Veins of head and neckDanger triangle of the facelies between root of nose and two angles of mouth In this area the facial vein has no valves
Connections with cavernous sinus and pteygoid venous plexus
Veins of head and neckRetromandibular v. Formed by union of superficial temporal and maxillary veinsDivides into an anterior branch that unites with facial vein and a posterior branch that joins posterior auricular vein to become external jugular vein
Veins of head and neck External jugular veinFormed behind angle of mandible by union of posterior auricular, posterior branch of retromandibular and occipital veinCrossing sternocleidomastoid to enter subclavian vein
Anterior jugular vein Drains submandibular and anterior neck regionsDescends near midline, runs posterior to sternal end of sternocleidomastoid to drain into external jugular vein or subclavian vein
Veins of head and neck Internal jugular veinBegin at jugular foramen, descending to join the subclavian vein to form brachiocephalic veinLies lateral first to internal and then to common carotid a. within carotid sheath Chief extracranial tributariesCommon facial veinLingual v. Pharyngeal v. Superior thyroid v. Middle thyroid v.
Veins of head and neckSubclavian veinContinuation of axillary vein at the lateral border of first ribJoins internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein. Venous angle the junction of the subclavian vein and internal jugular vein
Veins of the Head and Neck Inferior thyroid vein Brachiocephalic vein
Veins of the Upper Limb B. Superficial veins 1. Cephalic v. 2. Basilic v. 3. Median cubital v.
Veins of the Upper Limb 4. Median anterbrachial v. 5. Dorsal venous rete of hand [intravenous drip ] [intravenous injection]
Superficial veins of the upper limb Cephalic veinArises from the lateral side of the dorsal venous rete on the back of hand Winds around the lateral border of the forearm; it then ascends into the cubital fossa and up the front of the arm on the lateral side of the biceps. It continues up in the deltopectoral groove and then to the infraclavicular fossa, where it pierces clavipectoral fascia to drain into axillary vein.
Superficial veins of the upper limbBasilic veinArises from the medial side of the dorsal venous rete of hand Winds around the medial border of the forearm; it then ascends into the cubital fossa and up the front of the arm on the medial side of the biceps to middle of the arm where it pierces the deep fascia and joins the brachial vein or axillary vein
Superficial veins of the upper limbMedian cubital veinLinks cephalic vein and basilic vein in the cubital fossaIt is a frequent site for venipuncture to remove a sample of blood or add fluid to the blood
Variations in the venous pattern of the upper limbSuperficial veins are variable and are of significance clinically
Veins of the Upper Limb A. Deep Veins(follow the arteries given the same name:) 1. Subclavian v. 2. Axillary v. 3. Brachial v. 4. Radial v. 5. Ulnar v.
Veins of the ThoraxParietal Tributaries Anterior Wall of Thorax 1. Thoracoepigastric v. axillary v. 2. Anterior intercostal vv. internal thoracic v. brachiocephalic v.
Veins of the Thorax Posterior Wall of Thorax 1. Post. intercostal vv. left side: accessory hemiazygos v. hemiazygos v. right side: azygos v. sup. vena cava
Veins of the Thorax B. Visceral Tributaries 1. Esophageal v.2. Bronchial v.
Veins of thoraxBrachiocephalic veins Formed by union of internal jugular and subclavian veins posterior to the sternoclavicular joint
Veins of thoraxSuperior vena cavaFormed by union of right and left brachiocephalic veins behind the right sternocostal synchorndrosis of first ribRuns vertically down on right of ascending aorta Joined by azygos vein at level of sternal angleEnters right atrium at lever of lower border of third right sternocostal jointCollects blood from veins of upper half of body
Veins of thoraxAzygos veinBegins as continuation of right ascending lumbar veinAscending along the right side of vertebral columnJoins superior vena cava by aching above right lung root at level of T4 to T5Receives right posterior intercostals and subcostal veins plus some of bronchial, esophageal and pericardial veins, and hemiazygos veinTributariesHemiazygos v. Accessory hemiazygos v.
Veins of thoraxVeins of vertebral column External vertebral venous plexusInternal vertebral venous plexus
The inferior vena caval systemAbdomen
Lower limbInternaliliac v.
External iliac v.
Common iliac v.Inferiorvena cava Wall and paired visceraUnpaired viscera
Liver Hepatic v.
Veins of the AbdomenUnpaired Visceral Tributaries The Hepatic Portal Venous SystemDigestiveapparatus Spleen Hepatic poral v.(Liver Hepatic v)Inferiorvenacava
Veins of the Lower Limb B. Superficial Veins 1. Great saphenous v. femoral v. 1) superficial medial femoral v. 2) superficial lateral femoral v. 3) superficial iliac circumflex v. 4) superficial epigastric v. 5) external pudendal v.
Veins of the Lower Limb 2. Small saphenous v. popliteal v. 3. Dorsal venous arch of foot
Veins of lower limb Great saphenous v. Begins the medial end of dorsal venous arch of footPasses anterior to the medial malleolus and ascends on the medial side of the leg, then passes behind the knee and curves forward around the medial side of the thigh Inclines anteriorly through the thigh to enter the femoral vein through the saphenous hiatus which lies about 3~4 cm below and lateral to the pubic tubercleTributaries: Superficial medial femoral v. Superficial lateral femoral v. External pudendal v. Superficial epigastric v. Superficial iliac circumflex v.
External pudendal v.
Veins of lower limbSmall saphenous v. Arises from the lateral part of the dorsal venous arch of footAscends behind lateral malleolus and then runs up the midline of the back of the leg Pierces the deep fascia and enters the popliteal v.Drains the lateral side of the foot and ankle and the back of the leg.
Veins of the Lower LimbDeep Veins External iliac v. 2. Femoral v. 3. Popliteal v. 4. Anterior tibial v. 5. Posterior tibial v.
Veins of pelvisInternal iliac veinParietal tributaries: accompany with arteriesVisceral tributariesExternal iliac vein accompany the arteryCommon iliac vein formed by union of internal