the spirit of young america. territorial expansion by the mid-nineteenth century

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  • The Spirit of Young America

  • Territorial Expansion by the Mid-Nineteenth Century

  • Movement to the Far WestAmerican settlement reaches Pacific in 1830s and 1840sSettlement encroaches on lands claimed by Mexico and England

  • Borderlands of the 1830s1842: Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles the northeast U.S.-Canadian boundary Americans begin settling inOregon territory (joint U.S., English claim)New Mexico territory (owned by Mexico) California (owned by Mexico)

  • Texas Revolution

  • The Texas Revolution1820s: Americans encouraged to move into TexasAnglos never fully accept Mexican government rules on slavery and Catholicism1830: Mexico bans immigration from U.S. and importing slaves1835: Armed rebellion breaks out after Santa Anna seems bent on using military to enforce Mexican government policy

  • The Texas Revolution

  • The Republic of TexasMarch, 1836: Texans declare independence and the Alamo under siegeApril, 1836: Santa Anna defeated at San JacintoMay, 1836: Santa Annas treaty recognizes Texas claim to territory (Mexico rejects)Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlersAnnexation to U.S. refused by Jackson

  • Tyler and Texas1841: John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrisons deathTyler breaks with Whigs1844: Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re-election campaign issueSenate refuses to ratify because of expansion of slaveryTyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay

  • Western Trails

  • Trails of Trade and SettlementSanta Fe Trail closed to U.S. travelers as a result of Mexicos war with TexasOregon Trail conduit for heavy stream of settlers to the Oregon countryOregon settlers demand an end to joint U.S.-British occupation

  • The Doctrine of Manifest Destiny

  • The Doctrine of Manifest DestinyManifest Destiny first used in 1845 by John OSullivanGod wants the U.S., His chosen nation, to become strongerAmericans make new territories free and democraticGrowing American population needs landLimits to American expansion undefined

  • The Triumph of Polk and Annexation

  • The Triumph of Polk and AnnexationDemocrats nominate James K. PolkPolk runs on expansionist platformAnnexation of Texas for Southern voteU.S. jurisdiction of Oregon for Northern voteJames Birney and Liberty Party take votes away from Clay over the expansion of slavery

  • The Triumph of Polk and AnnexationPolk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansionTexas is annexed by joint resolution shortly before Polk inaugurated

  • The Liberty Party Swings an Election

  • The Election of 1844

  • Northwest Boundary Dispute

  • Polk and the Oregon Question54'40" or fight1846: Polk tells British that joint occupation no longer acceptableEngland prepares for war, proposes division of the area

  • Polk and the Oregon QuestionSenate approves division of Oregon along 49north latitude, Treaty of 1846U.S. gains ownership of Puget SoundNorthern expansionists condemned Polk for division

  • The Mexican-American War

  • War with Mexico: OutbreakTexan claim to area between Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers not recognized by MexicoAfter Texas annexation, this causes conflict between U.S. and MexicoPolk orders General Zachary Taylor into disputed areaApril 24, 1846 Mexicans attack Americans in disputed areaMay 13, 1846: War on Mexico declared

  • War with Mexico: CourseGeneral Zachary Taylor wins campaign in northern MexicoColonel Stephen Kearney captured New Mexico and joined John C. Frmont in taking California by early 1847September, 1847: General Winfield Scott occupies Mexico City

  • Settlement of the Mexican-American War: TermsNicholas Trist, the negotiator with Mexico, disobeys Polks orders to return to WashingtonFebruary, 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Rio Grande becomes southern borderNew Mexico, California ceded to U.S.U.S. pays Mexico $15 million

  • Settlement of the Mexican-American War: AftermathWhy the U.S. did not annex all of Mexico?Merk Thesis: Racism and anti-colonial heritageGraebner: U.S. only wanted west coast ports, no need for rest of Mexico

  • Settlement of the Mexican-American War: AftermathMexican War politically contentiousWhigs constantly criticized war effortNortherners view war as aimed at increasing slavery and Southern powerWilmont ProvisoManifest Destiny ultimately limited by racism and slavery question

  • Settlement of the Mexican-American War

  • Settlement of the Mexican-American War

  • Internal ExpansionismYoung Americans link territorial growth to other material achievementsTechnological innovatione.g. telegraphTransportation improvementsGrowth of tradeMass immigration

  • Internal ExpansionismDiscovery of California gold inspires transcontinental projectsTerritorial expansion wanes after 1848; economic, population growth continues

  • The Triumph of the Railroad1840s: Railroad begins displacing canals Rail construction stimulates iron industry Railroads stimulate new forms of finance:Bonds Preferred stock Government subsidies

  • Railroads, 1850 and 1860

  • The Industrial Revolution Takes OffMass production, the division of labor makes production more efficientFactory system emergesGather laborers in one place for supervisionCash wagesContinuous process of manufacturing

  • The Industrial Revolution Takes OffAgriculture becomes mechanized Northern economy based on interaction of industry, transportation, agriculture

  • The Industrial Revolution Takes Off

  • Mass Immigration Begins18401860: 4 million Irish, Germans immigrate to U.S.Most come for higher wagesImmigrants fill low-paying jobs in port citiesLow immigrant wages contribute to slumsUrban reform movement results from poverty of slumsWorking class experience unifies different ethnicities into an American working class

  • Immigration to the United States, 18201860

  • The New Working Class1840s: Factory labor begins shifting from women and children to menImmigrants dominate new working classEmployers less involved with laborersPost-1837, employers demand more work for less payUnions organized to defend worker rights

  • The New Working ClassWage laborers resent discipline, continuous nature of factory work Workers cling to traditional work habitsAdjustment to new work style was painful and took time

  • The New Working Class

  • The Costs of ExpansionWorking class poses problem for idealsWorking for wages was assumed to be the first step toward becoming ones own masterNew class of permanent wage-earners conflicted with old idealEconomic expansion creates conflicts between classesTerritorial expansion creates conflicts between sections Both sets of conflicts uncontrollable

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