THE SEVENTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF MEDICINE (1913)
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convince anybody that the ground covered is so compre-hensive as to make the task a difficult one. However, anexcellent handbook has been prepared. Plans of the museumwill be found on pages 10 and 11 of this handbook, indicatingthe arrangement of the exhibits on the first and ground floorsor basement of 51A, Wigmore-street, where the museum issituated. Further plans are inserted facing the first page ofeach section, and showing the general arrangement of thatsection and also the itinerary in accordance with thesequence of the exhibits described in the handbook. Thishandbook is intended to serve only as a descriptive guideand to indicate the chief features and objects exhibited in themuseum.
We propose to refer to some of the more interesting andstriking exhibits. On entering the museum we come first tothe Hall of Primitive Medicine, which gives an insight intothe native medical methods of Africa, Tibet, the islands ofthe Pacific, and other lands inhabited by primitive peoples,and illustrates graphically the beginnings of medicine. Therealso are various exhibits relating to the development oftropical medicine, with an annexe of parasitology, in whichare demonstrated under the microscope specimens of themost important protozoal agents of disease. Passing througha corridor containing pictures of medical interest we cometo the Hall of Statuary. Here are to be found sculptures,pictures, and other exhibits, illustrative of the healing artand of its development among Oriental, Egyptian, Grseco-Roman, and other peoples. There is a Greek temple modelledafter the Temple of Erechtheion in Athens, containingRoman votive offerings of anatomical, pathological, andobstetrical interest, excavated chiefly at the Temple ofEsculapius on the Tiberine Island and from the Templeof Maternity in Capua ; statues of Apollo, Asklepios,Hygeia, Ixlilton (the Mexican Little Black Brother, thedeity of healing), Shen-Nung (2838-2698 B.C., the founderof the healing art among the Chinese), Dhanwantari (India),Ea and Marduk (Chaldea), Gula and Adapa (Sumerian),Thoth, I-Em-Hetep, and Ptah. There are also collections ofancient surgical instruments, Greek, Roman, Chinese,Native African, mediaeval, and others of later times. In thegalleries are charms, talismans, and amulets, combs andhairpins, spectacles and eyeglasses. We then pass on theright into the gallery of pictures, which contains interest-ing portraits and relics of Edward Jenner, with manyother portraits of important personages in the history ofmedicine, including many British celebrities, Caius,Sydenham, Harvey, Sir Thomas Browne, Mead, SirHans Sloane, John Hunter, and others. Amongst thepictures attention may be drawn to No. 70, describedon p. 71 of the handbook. This interesting oilpainting, painted in the sixteenth century, representsa patient being prepared to have his leg amputated. By thebedside sits the surgeon, warming the instruments pre-paratory to operating, while at the foot of the bed is a groupof monks praying for the recovery of the patient. Enteringat the door is the physician. From the Gallery of Pictureswe pass into the Gallery of Ancient Manuscripts, where arefound a collection of medical diplomas from the sixteenth tothe eighteenth centuries, many illuminated, and other MSS.on medicine from the thirteenth to the eighteenth centurips,with ancient medical documents and MSS., and English,Greek, and Oriental early printed books on medicine.Leaving the first floor, we go downstairs to the ground
floor or basement, which has been skilfully utilised for re-constructing actual scenes in medical and surgical practicein ancient times. The series begins with a chapel of votivetablets from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries,chiefly from the church of Santa Maria dei Bagni, Deruta,Perugia. Some of these curious tablets are original andothers replicas of offerings for recovery from accidents anddisease. Annexed to this is a London pharmacy of theeighteenth century. The shop front is the original of thepharmacy established in 1798 by John Bell, founder of thePharmaceutical Society. The vases in the interior are ofDevonport ware, the ointment jars are of Staffordshirestoneware, and the essence bottles of red Venetian glass.The laboratory in the rear, in which a pharmacist is at work,contains the actual fittings of a pharmaceutical laboratory ofthe eighteenth century that once stood in Russell-street,Covent Garden, London. Next we pass to the shop of JohnSmith, Apothecarie, at Ye Sign of ye Wilde Man, "in ye OldBailie, London, 1662. The shop has been carefully recon-structed, and shows John Smith in the dress of the period
studying his pharmacopoeia. Next to the shop of JohnSmith is the laboratory of an alchemist of the sixteenthcentury, and then we come to an Italian pharmacy of thesame period. A barbers surgeons shop of the Tudor period,with the barber surgeon engaged on some chirurgicaltreatment, at once carries the spectator back into thesixteenth century. The consulting-room of the Pompeiansurgery gives an Alma Tadema touch to this part of themuseum. The furniture and decorations are copied fromoriginals found in Pompeii and Herculaneum and now in themuseum, Naples. After passing some interesting exhibitsrelating to the plague we come to scenes reconstructed toshow the actual practice in the mediaeval hospital at amaternity case. In the same gallery are exhibited a collectionof parturition chairs. One of these, of the eighteenth century,was believed to possess miraculous powers, and was knownas "the miraculous chair of Palermo." " It was in thepossession of a famous family of midwives for threegenerations, and is estimated to have been used in 2000cases of delivery.
Before leaving the basement one ought to cast ones eyesup to the ceiling of the front gallery, more particularly inview of the recent criticisms in the press on the complicatednature of the prescription of the present day, and there readthe prescription for the making of theriaca. This containedno less than 75 ingredients. There is also a water-colourdrawing representing the making of the famous theriaca inBologna. The preparation of this medicament was carriedout with much ceremony and solemnity in the presence ofthe leading officials of the city in the courtyard of theancient Archiginnasio, the old University of Bologna. Anattempt was made in the earlier part of the eighteenthcentury to remove it from the British Pharmacopoeia, but theBritish public, notwithstanding the complicated nature ofthe prescription, declined to part with an old and well-triedremedy, with the result that the theriaca with some modifi-cation remained in our Pharmacopoeia until the year 1788.The copies of the pharmacopoeias bearing out these state-ments are also exhibited.On the ground floor there is also exhibited a collection of
instruments of torture and appliances for restraining theinsane from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries, severalof these having been lent by the London MetropolitanAsylums Board.We close with congratulating heartily the Secretary,
Mr. C. J. S. Thompson, who has studied and arranged thelarge amount of interesting material that has been gatheredfrom all parts of the globe. Considerable artistic tastehas been displayed in the setting of the collection. Thisfeeling has been carried into the handbook itself,which in addition to the plans to which we have alreadyreferred, contains some well-executed illustrations. Thatof Hippocrates facing the title page is taken, we believe,from a bust in one of our national collections, and thedecorative headings throughout the handbook are reducedfacsimiles of the friezes especially designed and painted forthe Historical Medical Museum.
THE SEVENTEENTH INTERNATIONALCONGRESS OF MEDICINE (1913).
SECTION OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE.THE Section of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, of which
the President is Surgeon-General Sir David Bruce, A.M.S.,is holding discussions as follows :-August 7th: Plague ;reporters, Professor Dr. S. Kitasato (Tokyo), Major W.Glen Liston, 1.1B1.S., and Dr. Simond have promised to takepart in the discussion. August 8th : Beri-beri; ProfessorDr. C. Eijkmann (Utrecht), Professor Dr. B. Nocht (Ham-burg), Professor Schaumann, and Mr. Funk will take part inthe discussion. August 9th : Sanitary Organisation in theTropics (jointly with the Section of Naval and MilitaryMedicine) ; Lieutenant-Colonel P. Hehir, I.M.S., StabsarztDr. Hintze (Berlin), Professor Sir Ronald Ross, ColonelKing, I.M.S., Professor Plehn, Professor W. J. Simpson,and Dr. Edm. Sergent will take part. August llth:Leishmaniasis ; Professor A. Laveran (Paris), Dr. Nattan-Larrier (Paris), and Dr. C. Nicolle (Tunis). Sir WilliamLeishman will take part in the discussion. August 12th :Relapsing Fevers ; Dr. C. Levaditi (Paris) and Professor
F. G. Novy (U.S.A.) ; a part will be taken in the discussionby Dr. A. Balfour and Dr. Darling.
Papers have been received on the Prevention of Malaria inTroops in India and on Ulcerated and Spongy Gums inIndian Troops, both by Colonel Hehir. The followingpapers have been promised: Dr. Castellani, Yaws ; CaptainCraig (U.S.A.), Dengue; Dr. Robert Doerr (Vienna), Phlebo-tomus Fever ; Professor Katsurada (Japan), Schistosomiasis ;Dr. van Loghem (Utrecht): (1) on the Yellow Fever Danger!for Asia after the Opening of the Panama Canal; and (2) theDifference between Vibrio Cholera and Vibrio el Tor ; Dr.J. W. W. Stephens (Liverpool), Blackwater Fever; ProfessorTh. von Wasielewski, Zur Kenntnis der Halteridienkrankheitder Vogel, mit Demonstration.The section will meet in the Physical Chemistry Theatre
on the ground floor of the Imperial College of Science. An,epidiascope will be available for demonstration at the.sittings. The details for the sectional entertainments arenot yet completed ; they will include visits to the LondonTropical School and probably