# The Rubik's Cube From the history to the play. Table of Contents - Outline History - Invention - Inventor Ascent To Glory The Rubik's Cube - 3x3x3 - Other

Post on 05-Jan-2016

212 views

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

The Rubik's CubeFrom the history to the play

Table of Contents - OutlineHistory- Invention- InventorAscent To GloryThe Rubik's Cube- 3x3x3- Other DesignsNumber of CombinationsSolving the Cube- Methods- The Fridrich Method- NotationCompetitionsWorld Records

History - InventionInvented in 1974 by Ern Rubik, in Hungary

Patented in 1975

It was originally used for understanding 3D objects

Sold by Ideal Toy Corp.

History - The Inventor: Ern RubikBorn in Budapest, Hungary, July 13, 1944

Graduated from the Technical University in Architecture, in 1967

Architect and professor of Architecture at the Budapest College of Applied Arts

Currently, he is working on video games

Ascent To Glory - Growth in PopularityWon the Game Of The Year award in Germany, 1980Popularity grew worldwideAs of 2009, it became the top-selling puzzle of all time with 350 million cubes sold!The World Cube Association (WCA) was created, in 2003, to organize competitionsSeveral of these competition are held annually world-wide

The Rubik's Cube - 3x3x3Standard, original cube design, 3x3x3 dimensionsColors: White, yellow, red, orange, blue, greenHeld together with a center 3D "cross", which the centers are attached to Consists of corner, edge and center pieces

Rubik's Cube - Other DesignsMany other designs and dimensions, such as 5x5x5 or 7x7x7These cube are manufactured by other companies, such as DaYanMany other designs are improved versions of the 3x3x3Some rubik's cubes have different shapes altogether (triangles, flat tiles .etc...)

Number of Combinations43 quintillion possible combinations!Number comes from 8! * 37 (corner pieces) *(12! / 2) * 211 (edge pieces)If there were the same number of cubes as there are combinations, the cubes would cover the Earth 275 times!

Solving the Cube - MethodsThere are several methods to solve a cubeOptimal number of moves to solve is 20The 20 moves are almost exclusively executed by computers who can make calculations quicklyThe Fridrich Method is very popularThe Petrus Method and the Roux are also fairly popular methods

Solving the Cube - The Fridrich MethodDeveloped by Jessica Fridrich4 steps to completionStep 1: Cross. Step 2: First Two Layers. Step 3: Orientation of the Last Layer. Step 4: Permutation of the Last Layer. (Done!)Used for speedsolving, solving quickly

Solving the Cube - Notation"Moves" or rotations are classified in letters, for notationR = Right side, L = Left side (Always clockwise)R' = Right side inverted, L' = Left side inverted ... etc. (Always counter-clockwise)Y, X and Z are rotations of the entire cube by axis

CompetitionsFirst World Championship held in Munich, March 13, 1981From 2003, organized by The World Cube AssociationMandatory to use a Stackmat Timer, a timing deviceMany types of competitions, such as blindfolded, underwater, using feet, fewest moves etc.

World RecordsFastest time: 5.55 seconds by Mats ValkBest Average: 7.53 seconds by Feliks ZemdegsBlindfolded: 26.36 seconds by Marcell EndreyOne Hand: 9.43 seconds by Giovanni ContardiRobot: 5.27 seconds by CubeStormer II

ConclusionInvented over 30 years agoQuintillions of combinationsMany variations of the cube and solving methodsDozens of competitions are held year-roundLots of Fun!!!

Any Questions?

Hey guys, my topic will be on the rubik's cubeI will talk about the History of the cube, who invented it, when it was invented, what was it originally made for etc. I will also talk about how its popularity grew during the past years. Next, I will talk about the actual cube, other designs for it. I will talk about the number of combinations possible for a rubik's cube. I will talk about how to solve a cube, the methods and the notations. I will finally talk about cube competitions and world records for solving it.The rubik's cube was invented in 1974 by Ern Rubik, in Hungary. He patented the cube in 1975. The rubik's cube was originally made to help his university students understand 3D objects better.Ern Rubik was born in 1994, on July 13, in Budapest, Hungary. He graduated from the Technical University obtaining an Architecture degree. He later became an architect and a professor of Architecture at the Budapest College of Applied Arts. Now, Ern Rubik is working on video games. developing them and also working on some arichitetura,l concepts. The Won Of The Year award in Germany, in 1980. The toy's popularity grew at a very fast pace. An organization called the World Cube Association was established to organize competitions. The standard rubik's cube, like the one shown on the title page, is a 3 by 3 by 3 cube. The standard colors are white, yellow, red, orange, blue and green. The pieces of the cube are held together by a 3D cross at the center of the cube. The cube consists of corner, edge and center pieces. There are many other cube designs, such as 5 by 5 by 5 cubes or 7 by 7 by 7 cubes. Companies like DaYan manufacture these other cube designs. Some other cube designs are pyramids, flat tiles and balls. There are a total of 43 quintillion possible combinations of the rubik's cube; yet only one for the cube to be solved. That number comes from 8! * 3^7 * (12! / 2) * 2^11. If the number of possible combinations were also the number of cubes on the Earth, then the cubes would completely cover the Earth 275 times!There are several methods to solve a cube. The optimal number of moves is 20, but they are usually done by computers. The Fridrich method is a popular method among speedcubers, or people that solve the rubik's cube for the fastest speed. The Petrus and Roux methods are also fairly popular. The Fridrich Method is a solution to the rubik's cube developed by Jessica Fridrich. There are 4 steps that compose the method. Step one is the cross. The second is solving the first two layers. The third is orientating the last layer. The final step is permuting the last layer. Moves can be notated as letters. R = right side... so on and R' would be a right side turn be inverted. Y, X and Z moves are rotations of the entire cube by an axis. The first world championship was held in Munich, Germany, on March 13, 1981. From 2003 onward, the WCA has organized all the competitions. It is now mandatory to use a Stackmat Timer to time the speeds. There are other wacky competitions such as blindfolded or feet solving. The fastest time ever was done in 5.55 seconds by Mats Valk, in Norway. The best average ever was done by Feliks Zemdegs, former world record holder for the best time ever. The fastest blindfolded solve was 26.26 by Marcell Endrey. The fastest time one handed was done by Giovanni Contardi. The fastest time done by a robot was by CubeStormer II and a Samsung Galaxy II. The rubik's cube is a timeless classic, this puzzle has survived and outlasted many other toys and puzzles. There are quintillions of combinations and there are many other variations of the cube, if you ever get bored of the original. THere are many competitions to test your skill and speed. Finally, don't forget that its very fun to solve. Are there any other questions?