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  • The Renaissance

  • What was the Renaissance?Period following the middle ages (1400-1600)Rebirth of classical Greece and RomeBegan in ItalyMoved to northern Europe

  • Causes of the RenaissanceLessening of feudalismChurch disrespectedNobility in chaosGrowth of Middle Class through tradeFall of ConstantinopleGreek scholars fled to ItalyEducationNostalgia among the Italians to recapture the glory of the Roman empire

  • ObjectivesDuring the middle agesFind GodProve pre-conceived ideasDuring the RenaissanceFind manPromote learning

  • Northern and Late Renaissance RELIGION/POLITICS Reformation; much political & religious violence IDEAS a skeptical Humanism ART a realism of everyday life: PORTRAITS, LANDSCAPES; oil painting MUSIC conservative perfection (Palestrina) & new approaches (madrigals)

  • Renaissance1st period to name itself and say nasty things about earlier times: Gothic & Dark AgesTerm means RebirthLooking back to Classical culture Ancient Greece and Rome

  • Middle Ages - people were parts of a greater whole; members of a family, trade guild, nation, or Church

    Renaissance - human beings first began to think of themselves as individuals

  • TimelineGuttenberg Bible1456Columbus reaches America1492Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisac. 1503Michelangelo: David1504Raphael: School of Athens1505Martin Luthers 95 theses1517Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet1596

  • HumanismPursuit of individualismRecognition that humans are creativeAppreciation of art as a product of manBasic culture needed for allLife could be enjoyableLove of the classical past

  • Renaissance ManBroad knowledge about many things in different fieldsDeep knowledge of skill in one areaAble to link areas and create new knowledge

  • RealismThat painting is the most to be praised which agrees most exactly with the thing imitated.- Leonardo da Vinci

  • Names! Artists known by name 1st contemporary art historian (1550)Individuality celebrated in this era

  • Shakespeare Part of a general revival of theater, which we need to mention now, because OPERA is about to develop in the Baroque period.HAMLET - 1602

  • Church is still the biggest power structureBeginning of bankingPrivate fortunes & powerStarts in Italy specifically Florence

  • REFORMATIONJosquin Ave Maria . . .1500Michelangelo Donatello DavidLeonardo RaphaelMichelangelo David14001600Renaissance timeline

  • Summary Italian Renaissance POLITICS Italian city-states; power from money EARLY RENAISSANCE Florence HIGH RENAISSANCE Rome ART Classical ideals revived; BIG 3 IDEAS Humanism returns MUSIC Josquin & imitative counterpoint

  • The Old WayStart with a bit of chant a cantus firmus

  • The Emerging Way?Still very linear in conception, especially in its emphasis on IMITATIVE COUNTERPOINT, but more vertical in organization? (Careful control of dissonance; favoring triads.)

  • Basic structureWords dominateTone painting

  • Printed in part-book or opposing-sheet formatIntended for amateur performers (after dinner music)English madrigal lighter & simplerOriginated in ItalyPrintingPrintingPrintingPrinting

  • Josquin(to the tune of the Beatles Michelle)Josquin, the Man,Wrote smooth counterpoint as no one can,That guy Josquin.

  • Josquin Desprez 1st Great Composer glorified by contemporary and following generations new approach to composition?

  • a piece by Josquin

  • Musical NotationInvented to publish books of musicInvented instrumentsInstrumental arrangements appeared

  • The Reformation 1517Martin Luther a composer himself Effort to reform creates new churchSides with rulers against peasant revoltsPrinting press disseminates The WordBoost to individualismConsequences for music: Mass gone; hymns

  • The Counter-Reformation

  • Giovanni PalestrinaAdult life in RomeChoirmaster, singer,/ director of musicReactionary periodChurch suppressed music that did not enhance words of the MassPolyphony was distractingWorks were conservative

  • Giovanni PalestrinaWrote over 100 massesGregorian chantMass in Honor of Pope MarcellusInfluenced later musicBuried in St. Peters BasilicaThe Prince of Music

  • Palestrina Chant a source of musical materials (revival & last gasp of cantus firmus technique)Very refined; no text paintingRepetition avoided16th Century Counterpoint still taught today why? To teach control, focus & lineWe usually celebrate innovators in history Palestrina was a consolidator and perfecter of a soon-to-fade style

  • Palestrina a storyThe Church was about to ban polyphonic music from the church, because it obscured the sacred text. In response, Palestrina then composed the Missa Papae Marcelli, which, depite its 6-part texture, features very clear text-setting. The powers-that-be heard its merit & beauty and music was SAVED! Charming story, often told, but alas not true.

  • Secular MusicNew instrumentsChansons favored in the courtCourtly LoveMadrigalsPoetry and Music

  • Music at CourtDances Instrumentation unspecified; usually a consort (group) of a family of instruments of uniform timbre

    Dances are collected into suites (Baroque) which evolve into symphonies (Classical)

  • Instrumental MusicStill subordinate to vocal musicUsed more often to accompany voicesSometimes played adapted vocal music alonePublished music stated that parts could be sung or playedDancing became ever more popularComposers did not specify instrumentation

  • Music at CourtOrigin of term obscureA type of song for multiple voice partsText is a rhyming poem, usually with sections of repetition & is usually about LoveMadrigals

  • MadrigalsPopular-at-court-&-wealthy-homes musicIn Italy and EnglandParticipatory, not passive musictext-paintingimportance of words homorhythmic texture

    Music at Court


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