the renaissance – means rebirth; in europe was the rebirth of ideas and culture connected with...
Post on 27-Mar-2015
Embed Size (px)
- Slide 1
Slide 2 The Renaissance means rebirth; in Europe was the rebirth of ideas and culture connected with ancient Greece and Rome. Mainly in urban centers. Florence where the Renaissance began; spread to other areas of Europe over 200 years. Politics Medici family (wealthy merchants) ruled Florence Economy based on shipping trade with Byzantine & Islamic Empires as well as England and the Netherlands. Socially time of recovery from Black Plague & political instability. Importance of the individual. Material comforts, art emphasizing positive human qualities, and humanistic ideas. Slide 3 Renaissance Man describes a well educated person who excels in many fields and has many talents. Machiavelli From Florence; Wrote The Prince, describing the skills required by a ruling prince to maintain power and order. Leonardo da Vinci The original Renaissance Man; expert in painting, sculpting, engineering, physics, anatomy, and other subjects. He is most known for the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Michelangelo Renaissance artist who is best known for idealized paintings and sculptures of the human body. Reflected the beauty of God. Slide 4 Humanists studied history, philosophy, and poetry of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Petrarch argued that no conflict existed between secular achievements and a persons relationship with God. He believed that God gave people intelligence and talents that they should use to the fullest. Dante Took humanist ideas and incorporated them into literature written in the common language of his day; not in Latin. Erasmus was a Dutch Christian Humanist who believed in reforming the Catholic Church from within. He believed in free will instead of predestination ideas found in the Protestant movement. Slide 5 A movement against certain practices of the Catholic Church which had dominated religious practice & politics in Europe for hundreds of years. Martin Luther his ideas were considered a catalyst of the Protestant Reformation. He publicly protested and posted the 95 Theses attacking the selling of Indulgences for the release from the punishment of sin. He broke from the Catholic Church, and the Lutheran Church was formed as the first Protestant faith. John Calvin Leader in the Protestant faith; believed in predestination (God is all powerful and has already decided who will receive salvation & who wont) Slide 6 Henry VIII established the Anglican Church in England (Protestant Church) so he could divorce his wife. He remained very Catholic in his beliefs. Elizabeth I Henry VIIIs daughter turned the Anglican Church to moderate Protestantism during her reign. Johannes Gutenberg printed the first Bible in Europe with moveable type. This allowed the ideas of the Protestant Reformation to spread rapidly. The printing industry encouraged people to learn to read, and gave them access to a variety of religious texts, literature, and scholarship. Slide 7 Jesuits group of Catholics who believed in restoring Catholicism to newly Protestant areas of Europe. Were recognized as a new religious order within the Catholic Church. They turned many parts of Europe back to Catholicism through education. Council of Trent body of Catholic Bishops who met for 18 years to work on reforming corrupt practices within the Catholic faith. Stopped the selling of indulgences. Slide 8 Vasco da Gama sailed to Eastern Africa & Western India; helped Portugal establish strategic positions along Indian Ocean. Portuguese controlled trade routes in this area. Christopher Columbus Italian sailing for Spain; looked for route from Spain to India; helped establish a permanent European settlement on Hispaniola; connected Europe with the Americas. Ferdinand Magellan sailed for Spain; 1 st explorer to successfully sail around the earth. Helped prove that the earth was round. Slide 9 Samuel de Champlain sailed for France; established the first French colony in North America. His colony in New France was called Quebec City. Helped establish trade routes between France and New France. Mercantilism idea that countries need a large supply of gold and silver to have prosperity. They earn the gold and silver by exporting goods. Colonies provided European nations the raw materials they needed to make finished goods. The colonies then were a market for these finished goods. Slide 10 Columbian Exchange large scale exchange of plants, diseases, animals, and people between the eastern and western hemispheres following Columbus first voyage to the Americas Astrolabe technology that allowed sailors to locate and predict the position of the moon, sun, stars making navigation more efficient. Slide 11 Copernicus believed in heliocentric solar system (the earth revolved around the sun); this challenged the Catholic Churchs opposite belief. Galileo Galilei proved Copernicus theory through use of the telescope. Johannes Kepler astronomer who believed that the planets in the solar system moved in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Sir Isaac Newton considered the father of calculus; famous for his laws of gravity and motion; proved Keplers theory of elliptical orbit through mathematics. Slide 12 European Settlement GPS: SSUSH 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d Slide 13 Founded by the Virginia Company of London as a business venture. First permanent English colony in North America. Settled on a swampy site on the James River in Virginia. Problems: Settled on a swamp Illness Lack of food & fresh water Fights with Native Americans Wanted to look for gold instead of work The colony almost did not survive. Slide 14 1614 Pocahontas married John Rolfe, an English tobacco grower. The marriage led to good will between the colonists & the Powhatans for a while. Conflict began again when colonists expanded onto Powhatan lands to grow tobacco. Virginias economy became dependent on tobacco for its existence. Slide 15 1619 VA Company let Jamestown establish its own government with the right to create colonial laws. Residents elected representatives, called burgesses to the House of Burgesses. The VA House of Burgesses was the first representative government in America. The governor was appointed by the VA Company. This elected body acted on behalf of the colonists. Slide 16 Poor English and slave colonists staged an uprising against the governor and his landowning supporters. The landless rebels wanted harsher action against the Native Americans so more land would be available to the colonists. The rebellion was put down, and the VA House of Burgesses passed laws to regulate slavery so poor white colonists would no longer side with slaves against rich white colonists. Slide 17 New England colonies Established by Puritans in present day Massachusetts. Strict religious beliefs. Not tolerant of differing religious beliefs. Slide 18 Rhode Island was founded by religious dissenters from Massachusetts who were more tolerant of different religious beliefs. Many New England communities were run through town meetings. In colonies run by the King, a royal governor was appointed Church membership was required for men to have voting rights. Church membership was tightly controlled by the minister and congregation. As more children were born in America, many grew up to be adults who lacked a personal covenant (relationship) with God. Slide 19 Mid-1600s the Puritan ideal was under pressure to change. 1662- church ministers agreed to the Half - Way Covenant Children of church members were admitted as half way members who could be baptized into the church, but did not have the right to vote or take communion. Hope was to increase church membership with these 2 nd and 3 rd generation Puritans. Late 1600s a fear of witchcraft was prevalent in New England. 1692- in Salem, MA dozens of women, men & children were accused of witchcraft & jailed. During the 10 months of the Salem Witch Trials, nineteen people were found guilty of practicing witchcraft and were hanged. Slide 20 PENNSYLVANIA 1681 William Penn got a large piece of land from King Charles II and founded Pennsylvania. Quakers settled Pennsylvania Practiced religious tolerance Were pacifists Religious equality for women No established church ministry Quakers were often persecuted for they way of life. 1683 Pennsylvania established a legislative assembly. Slide 21 NEW YORK 1626 Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam was founded after buying Manhattan Island from the Manhattan people (Native Americans) for some beads and other goods. It became a major trading port. Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant turned the colony over to England in 1664. It was renamed New York after the Duke of York, who was the brother of King Charles II. Tolerant of different religions. Slide 22 Mercantilism inspired Parliament to control the trans-Atlantic trade with its American colonies. All goods shipped to or from British North America had to travel in British ships, and goods exported to Europe were subject to British taxes. These restrictions were designed to keep the colonies from competing with Britain. Slide 23 Tobacco & other cash crops required a large labor force. African slaves were used for this work. In 1607, there were no African slaves in North America, but by 1700, there were thousands. Most of them were found in the Southeast, where the economy was agriculturally based. The Middle Passage was the part of the triangular trade through which the slaves came to North America. Slide 24 African American culture grew in America. Slave communities were rich with music, dance, basket weaving, and pottery making. Slaves brought these skills with them from their various cultures. Slide 25 The Enlightenment was a new way of thinking that came about during the scientific revolution in Europe. It was based on reason. John Locke and others talked about the natural rights of individuals. Rousseau- argued in favor of the social contract, allowing governments to exis