The Renaissance In Italy Renaissance – 1300s-1500s – “Rebirth” Why Italy? – Renewed interest in the culture of Ancient Rome. Artifacts and remains were.

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Slide 1 The Renaissance In Italy Renaissance 1300s-1500s Rebirth Why Italy? Renewed interest in the culture of Ancient Rome. Artifacts and remains were visible. Italian cities such as Florence survived the Middle Ages and became very strong trading states. Powerful merchant/banking families such as the Medicis became patrons, economic and political leaders and promoted this growth. Stressed education and individual achievement. Slide 2 Lorenzo the Magnificent 1478 - 1521 Cosimo de Medici 1517 - 1574 Slide 3 Florence Under the Medici Medici Chapel Medici Chapel The Medici Palace Slide 4 Slide 5 The Renaissance In Italy Art reflected classical styles, religion, and individual achievement. Donatello created life-size sculptures and worked in the perspective Leonardo da Vinci genius in many fields who mixed his knowledge with his art; Ex: Mona Lisa Michelangelo Sistine Chapel and a genius in many fields Raphael blend of Christian and classical styles. Famous for his portrayals of the Madonna Anguissola & Gentileschi famous women artists Slide 6 The Renaissance In Italy Humanism focus on worldly subjects rather than spiritual issues Petrarch Creative powers of the human mind Question the classical works Development of the humanities Slide 7 1. Realism & Expression Expulsion from the Garden Masaccio 1427 First nudes since classical times. Slide 8 2. Perspective Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! First use of linear perspective! Perspective! Perspective! The Trinity Masaccio 1427 What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become. Slide 9 Slide 10 3. Classicism Greco-Roman influence. Secularism. Humanism. Individualism free standing figures. Symmetry/Balance The Classical Pose Medici Venus (1c) Slide 11 4. Emphasis on Individualism Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466. Slide 12 5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate Leonardo da Vinci 1469 The figure as architecture! Slide 13 Slide 14 Filippo Brunelleschi 1377 - 1436 Architect Cuppolo of St. Maria del Fiore Slide 15 Filippo Brunelleschi Commissioned to build the cathedral dome. Used unique architectural concepts. He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome. Used ribs for support. Slide 16 Brunelleschis Secret Slide 17 Brunelleschis Dome Slide 18 Other Famous Domes Il Duomo St. Peters St. Pauls US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington) Slide 19 David by Donatello 1430 First free-form bronze since Roman times! The Liberation of Sculpture Slide 20 The Baptism of Christ Verrocchio, 1472 - 1475 The Baptism of Christ Verrocchio, 1472 - 1475 Leonardo da Vinci Slide 21 Vitruvian Man Leonardo da Vinci 1492 The Luomo universale Slide 22 Leonardo, the Artist: From his Notebooks of over 5000 pages (1508-1519) Slide 23 Mona Lisa da Vinci, 1503-4 Slide 24 A Macaroni Mona Parody The Best Form of Flattery? Slide 25 A Picasso Mona Slide 26 An Andy Warhol Mona Slide 27 Mona Lisa OR da Vinci?? Slide 28 The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 & Geometry Slide 29 horizontal vertical Perspective! The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 Slide 30 Refractory Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie Milan Slide 31 A Da Vinci Code: St. John or Mary Magdalene? Slide 32 Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook Slide 33 Leonardo, the Inventor: Pages from his Notebook Slide 34 David Michelangelo Buonarotti 1504 Marble Slide 35 The Pieta Michelangelo Buonarroti 1499 marble The Popes as Patrons of the Arts Slide 36 The Sistine Chapel Michelangelo Buonarroti 1508 - 1512 Slide 37 Slide 38 The Sistine Chapels Ceiling Michelangelo Buonarroti 1508 - 1512 Slide 39 The Sistine Chapel Details The Creation of the Heavens Slide 40 The Sistine Chapel Details Creation of Man Slide 41 St. Peters Basilica Slide 42 School of Athens 1511 - Raphael Slide 43 The School of Athens Raphael, 1510 -11 Raphael Da Vinci Michelangelo Slide 44 Averroes Hypatia Pythagoras Slide 45 Zoroaster Ptolemy Euclid Slide 46 Perspective!Perspective! Betrothal of the Virgin Raphael1504 Slide 47 The Renaissance In Italy Architecture rejected the Gothic style and used columns, arches, and domes; Ex: Brunelleschi Literature poetry, books on politics, how- to books Castiglione Ideals of a man and woman **Machiavelli The Prince The Ends Justifies The Means Slide 48 The Northern Renaissance Mid 1400s in Flanders. Albrecht Durer known as the German Leonardo studied under the Italian masters and spread the ideas of the Renaissance works featured religious upheavals and a wide range of interests. Jan & Hubert van Eyck rich details and the use of oil paints. Pieter Bruegel used vibrant colors to depict daily life. Peter Paul Rubens realism, classical themes, and artistic freedom. Slide 49 Adoration of the Trinity - Durer Slide 50 Drer The Last Supper woodcut, 1510 Slide 51 Durer The Triumphal Arch, 1515-1517 Slide 52 The Triumphal Arch, details Slide 53 Hans Holbein, the Younger (1497-1543) One of the great German artists who did most of his work in England. While in Basel, he befriended Erasmus. Erasmus Writing, 1523 Henry VIII was his patron from 1536. Great portraitist noted for: Objectivity & detachment. Doesnt conceal the weaknesses of his subjects. Slide 54 Artist to the Tudors Henry VIII (left), 1540 and the future Edward VI (above), 1543. Slide 55 Bruegels, Tower of Babel, 1563 Slide 56 Bruegels, The Beggars, 1568 Slide 57 Bruegels, Niederlandisch Proverbs, 1559 Slide 58 Bruegels - The Peasant Dance (1567) Slide 59 Bruegels, The Harvesters, 1565 Slide 60 Jan van Eyck (1395 1441) More courtly and aristocratic work. Court painter to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good. The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin, 1435. Slide 61 Van Eyck: The Crucifixion & The Last Judgment 1420-1425 Slide 62 Peter Paul Rubens - The Elevation of the Cross, 161011. Slide 63 The School of Fontainebleau - France, Gallery [right] by Rosso Fiorentino & Francesco Primaticcio, 1528-1537 Slide 64 The English Were More Interested in Architecture than Painting Hardwick Hall, designed by Robert Smythson in the 1590s, for the Duchess of Shrewsbury [more medieval in style]. Slide 65 Burghley House for William Cecil The largest & grandest house of the early Elizabethan era. Slide 66 The Northern Renaissance Humanists **Erasmus new edition of the Greek New Testament; translated works into the vernacular; challenged the worldliness of the Church and the immoral behavior of the clergy. **Sir Thomas More pressed for social and economic reforms Utopia describing the ideal society. Slide 67 The Northern Renaissance Literature Rabelais used comedy, adventures, travel, and war to offer opinions on serious subjects such as religion and education. **William Shakespeare enough said! Cervantes The Adventures of Don Quixote. **Johann Gutenberg the invention of the printing press. Slide 68 Slide 69 The Protestant Reformation Lutheran - 1517 full scale Revolt mainly against the sale of Indulgences. 95 Theses -Christians could only be saved through faith. Reject tyranny of Rome. 1521 he was Excommunicated. Declared an outlaw but received help from Prince Frederick. Slide 70 The Protestant Reformation Doctrine Salvation through faith - Rejected Church doctrine (good deeds) - All people had equal chance. Bible was the sole source of truth - Rejected powers of priest/hierarchy etc. Called for Church modification. He rejected 5 of 7 sacraments. Banned indulgences, pilgrimages, and prayer (saints), rituals and believed clergy could marry. Emphasized the Sermon. Slide 71 The Protestant Reformation Calvin most important reformer to follow Luther. God was all-powerful and human were evil. God alone decided on achievement belief in Predestination. 2 people Saints & Sinners. Calvinists tried to live like saints. Set up a Theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland - Stressed hard work, discipline, honesty, and morality - Very Strict in religious and social customs - Urged singing in Church. Spread to several areas and triggered bloody battles throughout Europe - Faced opposition from Lutherans. Huguenots (French Calvinists) vs. Catholics. Scottish Presbyterian Church split from the Calvinists. Slide 72 THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION Between 1530s & 1540s, the Catholic Church, under Pope Paul III set out to revive and reform the church. Council Of Trent 1545 Reaffirmed traditional views: 1.Salvation comes through faith and good deeds. 2.Bible was a source of religious truth but not the only source. 3.Looked to end abuses and corruption of the clergy. Offered stiff penalties. 4.Created better schools to teach the clergy to challenge Protestants. Slide 73 THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION Had the Inquisition used testimony, torture, and forbidden books to root out witches, heretics, and get scapegoats. Ignatius of Loyola Founded Jesuits and strict moral/spiritual code to combat heretics and spread the Catholic faith. St. Teresa of Avila Founded Carmelite Nuns. Slide 74 PERSECUTION Targeted outcasts, witches and looked for scapegoats. Specifically attacked the Jews and removed any lenient laws that helped them. Forced Jews to live in Ghettos and anti-Semitism increased. Jewish migration to Eastern Europe. Slide 75 THE ENGLISH REFORMATION Henry VIII seeks to end papal control over the English Church. Seeks an annulment from his wife Catherine of Aragon but is denied by the Pope. 1 st He stirs up feelings against the pope, then he takes over the church. Through Parliament, he passes Acts of Supremacy Henry is the supreme head of the Church of England. Shuts down all Convents & Monasteries. Slide 76 THE ENGLISH REFORMATION Offers aristocrats power in exchange for lands and wealth. Allowed use of English Bible and kept some Catholic forms of worship. Throne inherited by Edward VI but he died. Then came Mary Tudor who feared Elizabeth. After Elizabeth came to power, she replaced Latin with English and used The Book of Common Prayer. She also kept some rituals and hierarchy and reaffirmed that the monarch was the head of the church. Slide 77 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Copernicus proposes heliocentric model, which is rejected by many including the church. His theory contradicts Ptolemy. Tycho Brahe set up astronomical observatory to prove Copernicus right. Kepler used information to calculate the orbits of the planets. Galileo assembled telescope sees moon and sunspots and moons of Jupiter. He is forced to recant by the church. The New Scientific Method observation and experimentation. Slide 78 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Isaac Newton developed the theory of Gravity. Boyle elements/compounds pressure of gases. Galen & Vesalius works in anatomy. Pare ointment for healing. Harvey Heart serves as a pump. Francis Bacon stressed experiments/observations and use of practical technologies. Rene Descartes human reasoning - best road to understanding. Discover truth through traditional sources. I THINK, THEREFORE I AM. All open the door to the Enlightenment of the 1700s Slide 79 Slide 80 Credits: Mike McAndrew Albertus Magnus High School Susan Pojer Horace Greeley High School


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