the renaissance 1485-1660. what is renaissance? renaissance means “rebirth.” this signified...
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The Renaissance 1485-1660
What is Renaissance?Renaissance means rebirth. This signified the new interest in classical learning, which included studies from Greece and Rome. Michelangelo, the humanities, and the printing press are often associated with this time period.
HumanismThe educated people began to study humanism, a movement we now call humanities (philosophy, history, languages, and the arts).It was thought that it would teach people how to live and rule. The Bible was not the only source of wisdom and knowledge; people now looked to Latin and Greek classics.
The Printing PressThe printing press was created in the 15th century Johannes Gutenberg.In 1452 he began printing the Bible; this was the first thing printed.The printing press made things more widely available; thus the humanities became more influential
The ReformationMartin Luther, a monk, created a new kind of Christianity that was based more on personal interpretation of the Bible rather than literal interpretation.Many were ready to break with the Catholic Church.The big break up of the church came when Henry the VIII was not allowed to divorce his first wife.
Henry VIIIHenry married his brothers widow, Catherine of Aragon. When she didnt give him a living son, he sought to divorce her on the grounds that he was not legally married to her because she had been previously married to his brother. Because the pope refused to allow Henry to divorce Catherine (mother of Mary), he decided to make himself the head of the Church of England in 1534.
Henry VIIIHe divorced Catherine and married Anne Boleyn. Their marriage produced Elizabeth who would later rule England. Anne was beheaded when Henry accused her of adultery. Henry then married Jane Seymour (not to be confused with Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman). She produced Edward, the kings only son, but then she died in childbirth.
Henry VIIIHenry then married Anne of Cleves, but their marriage was never consummated because he found her so ugly. Because the marriage remained unconsummated, Henry sought an annulment. His next wife was Catherine Howard, whom he had executed for adultery.His last wife was Catherine Parr.
Bloody MaryHenrys living son, Edward, became king when he was very young, but he died when he was sixteen. That left Mary to rule. She decided to honor her mother by getting rid of the Protestants (Elizabeths mother was Protestant). She executed over three hundred people in her attempt to bring Catholicism back. She was married to the king of Spain, but died without producing an heir.
ElizabethBecause Mary died childless, that left Elizabeth to rule. She reestablished the Church of England but got on the popes bad side. Many people tried to kill Elizabeth while she reigned, one person of whom was her cousin, Mary of Scots. Eventually Elizabeth had her beheaded for her attempts.
ElizabethNot only did Elizabeth change the religion in England, she also changed the literary front. She was Englands great ruler and her reign was known as The Golden Age. She was glorified in the literature of many English authors. Upon her death, Mary of Scots son James VI became the king because Elizabeth died childless.
James VIJames brought something of a decline in England. He brought about the King James Bible, loved the work of Shakespeare, and was not nearly as frugal as Elizabeth had been. He was nice enough, but he didnt have the same rapport with his subjects as Elizabeth had.
Decline of the RenaissanceJames was not the success that Elizabeth had been and his poor reign was turned over to his son, Charles I, who was no better. Charles was beheaded in 1649. Parliament took over instead of a king. In 1660, Charless son came to rule, which continued the decline of the Renaissance. There is no specific date associated with the ending of the Renaissance; it simple ceased to be.
Pastoral PoetryPastoral means shepherd. This type of poetry, popular during the Renaissance, embraced the countryside and included shepherds and beautiful women who were in tune with nature. Pastoral poems portray nature as very idyllic.