the renaissance 1485 – 1660. renaissance timeline 1558: elizabeth i crowned 1517: martin luther...
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What Was the Renaissance?The Renaissance (French for rebirth) was a great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe. It began in Italy in the fourteenth century and spread across Europe to England over the next 100 years.Interest in the classical learning of ancient Greece and Rome was renewed. The arts and sciences flowered.The human spirit of curiosity and creativity seemed reenergized.
Characteristics of the RenaissancePeople read ancient Greek and Roman texts to expand their understanding of the world.A humanist philosophy spread, focusing on human life in the present as well as on eternity. Printing made books more widely available.The wealthy, growing merchant class began to challenge the power of the church and the nobility.Scholarly Latin spread across Europe, aiding the sharing of ideas across cultures.
The Renaissance and the ArtsArt flourished during the Renaissance. Church officials, royalty, and wealthy families served as patrons to artists such asLeonardo da Vinci (14521519)Michelangelo (14751564)Edmund Spenser (1552?1599)William Shakespeare (15641616)
Humanism in the RenaissanceHumanists combined ideas from Latin and Greek classics with traditional Christian thought to teach people how to live and rule. They sought to answer questions about lifeWhat is a good life? and How do I lead a good life?to use the classics to strengthen, not discredit, ChristianityDesiderius Erasmus and Thomas More were two well-known humanists who helped shape European thought and history.
The Invention of the Printing PressIn the early 1450s Johannes Gutenberg, a German, invented the printing press. His invention transformed the way information and ideas were exchanged.Books no longer had to be copied by hand.Books became more numerous, available, and affordable.
The Protestant Reformationbegan with Martin Luther in Wittenberg, Germany, 1517 and spread across Europe to EnglandMartin Luther believed that religion should be based on a personal understanding of the Bible, not on the authority of the Pope and his bishops. gained momentum as the Catholic Church was criticized for corruptionhad a financial component in England, where the English objected to the financial burdens placed on them by the Vatican in Italy
Henry VIII (r. 15091547)split the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and declared himself head of the new churchhad six wivesexecuted the humanist Thomas Moreauthorized creation of the Great Biblethe first official English translation of the Bible to be used in the Church of Englandcreated the Royal Navy
The Reigns of Edward and MaryEdward IV (r. 15471553)son of Jane Seymourcrowned at age ninesmart but sicklyruled only in namedied of tuberculosis at age fifteenMary Tudor (r. 15531558)daughter of Catherine of Aragon restored power of Pope and Catholic Churchcalled Bloody Mary because she executed hundreds of ProtestantsHenry VIII was survived by three heirs; each ruled England in turn.
Elizabeth I (r. 15581603)daughter of Anne Boleynregarded as a brilliant and successful monarchreestablished Church of Englandnever married; known as the Virgin Queenpatron of the arts
Defeat of the Spanish ArmadaIn 1588 King Philip of Spain assembled the powerful Spanish Armada and attacked England.Englands Royal Navy destroyed the Spanish Armada.The victory at sea was a turning point in history. It ensured Englands independence from the powerful Catholic countries of the Mediterranean.
Decline of the RenaissanceWhen Elizabeth died, she was succeeded by her second cousin, James, the king of Scotland.James I (r. 16031625) loved literature and drama. He was a patron to Shakespeare and sponsored a new translation of the Bible.However, he was unable to resolve religious and economic concerns, and his lavish dress and court life offended pious and thrifty merchants.
Decline of the RenaissanceCharless troubles with the English Parliament sparked the English Civil Wars (16421651), which ended in dissolution of the monarchy Charles beheadingflight of Charles II, his son and heir, to FranceCharles I (r. 16251649) succeeded James I, his father.
Puritans in Power (16491660)Puritans ruled England under the guidance of Oliver Cromwell.Cromwell was a shrewd ruler who led England to international prominence.Puritans closed down theaters from 1642 to 1660.
Match the achievement to the Renaissance ruler._____________ established the Church of England, separate from the Roman church_____________ supported the arts but offended the English with a lavish and costly lifestyle_____________ united England so that it could achieve military victory over SpainElizabeth IJames IHenry VIIIWhat Have You Learned?