the pupil premium how to spend it wisely
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DESCRIPTIONThe Pupil Premium How to Spend it Wisely. Robert Coe Director of the Centre for Evaluation & Monitoring (CEM) and Professor of Education, Durham University. Why are we here?. CEM aims to Create the best assessments in the world Empower teachers with information for self-evaluation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Getting more bang for your buck the education interventions that really work
The Pupil Premium
How to Spend it WiselyRobert CoeDirector of the Centre for Evaluation & Monitoring (CEM) and Professor of Education, Durham University##Why are we here?CEM aims toCreate the best assessments in the worldEmpower teachers with information for self-evaluationPromote evidence-based practices and policies, based on scientific evaluation#CEM activityThe largest educational research unit in a UK university 1.1 million assessments are taken each yearMore than 50% of UK secondary schools use one or more CEM systemCEM systems used in over 50 countriesLargest provider of computerised adaptive tests outside US#The Pupil Premium and Toolkit##The pupil premiumAims: to reduce the attainment gap between the highest and lowest achieving pupils nationallyto increase social mobilityto enable more pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds to get to the top Universitiesto provide additional resource to schools to do this488 last year, 600 this year, 900 next Performance of PP pupils reported separately in performance tablesSchools required to say how PP spent & what impact on pupil progress#The questionHow should a school spend any discretionary budget to achieve maximum benefits in learning?#Advice to schools: Up to you to decideInitial suggestions:Smaller classesOne to one tuitionDoes spending improve attainment?Mixed & complex findings from researchThe Bananarama Principle: It aint what you do its the way that you do itDo we know some things that do work?Why have we failed to increase attainment over 30 years?Before we started#Summarise the evidence from meta-analysis about the impact of different strategies on learning (attainment).As found in research studiesThese are averagesApply quality criteria to evaluations: rigorous designs onlyEstimate the size of the effectStandardised Mean Difference = Months of gainEstimate the costs of adoptingInformation not always availableWhat we tried to do#Toolkit of Strategies to Improve Learning
http://www.suttontrust.com/research/toolkit-of-strategies-to-improve-learning/Now known as The Sutton Trust-EEF Teaching and Learning Toolkit http://www.educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit/
#Higgins, S., Kokotsaki, D. & Coe, R. (2011) Toolkit of Strategies to Improve Learning: Summary for schools spending the pupil premium. May 2011. Sutton Trust: London. http://www.suttontrust.com/research/toolkit-of-strategies-to-improve-learning/ 9In the Toolkit
What is it?How effective is it?How secure is the evidence?What are the costs?How applicable is it?Further information#Overview of value for moneyCost per pupilEffect Size (months gain)00101000FeedbackMeta-cognitivePeer tutoringPre-school1-1 tutoringHomeworkICTAfLParental involvementSportsSummer schoolsAfter schoolIndividualised learningLearning stylesArtsPerformance payTeaching assistantsSmaller classesAbility groupingPromisingMay be worth itNotworth it#Think hard about learningFocus on implementationTeachers really matterInvest in good CPDEvaluate
Top tips for improvement#1. Think hard about learning##Some things that are popular or widely thought to be effective are probably not worth doingAbility grouping (setting); After-school clubs; Teaching assistants; Smaller classes; Performance paySome things look promisingEffective feedback; Meta-cognitive and self regulation strategies; Peer tutoring/peerassisted learning strategies; HomeworkKey messages#Does your theory of learning explain why Ability grouping (setting)After-school clubs Teaching assistantsSmaller classes Performance pay
do not work (or are not cost effective)?FeedbackMeta-cognitive strategies Peer tutoring
are effective?#Do we care about learning?Which of the following are evidence of learning?Students are busy: lots of work is doneStudents are engaged, interested, motivatedClassroom is ordered, calm, under controlWhat do school students value most?Social interactions & status with peersKeeping out of troublePleasing teachers: good marks, neat writing, politeThinking hard about really challenging problems#Learning happens when people have to think hardA simple theory of learning#2. Focus on implementation##These strategies have been shown to be cost-effective in research studiesBut when we have tried to implement evidence-based strategies we have not seen system-wide improvementWe dont know how to get schools/teachers who are not currently doing them to do so in ways that areTrue to the key principlesFeasible in real classrooms with all their constraintsScalable & replicableSustainableImplementation#3. Teachers really matter##What makes most difference to how much a pupil learnsHaving a good class teacher?Having a good headteacher / strong leadership in the school?Family income?Family support for learning?School culture / peer group valuing learning?Community support for the school?
What matters most?#Individual classroom teachers account for more of the variation in students learning gains than any other factorThat includes factors such as expenditure, leadership behaviours, school culture, social disadvantageRecruitment, support and retention of effective teachers must be key along with training/development and performance managementBut how do we know who the really effective teachers are?Colleagues observing lessons?Pupils test scores?Pupils ratings?Parents ratings?Ofsted ratings?Colleagues (including senior managers) perceptions?
Identifying the best teachers#How do you make a typical teacher slightly better?#4. Invest in good CPD##How do we get students to learn hard things?
EgPlace valuePersuasive writingMusic compositionBalancing chemical equationsExplain what they should doDemonstrate itGet them to do it (with gradually reducing support)Provide feedback Get them to practice until it is secure#How do we get teachers to learn hard things?
EgUsing formativeassessmentAssertive disciplineHow to teachalgebra
Explain what they should do#This slide is intentionally blankWhat do we know about what makes CPD effective?#Intense: at least 15 hours, preferably 50Sustained: over at least two termsContent focus: on teachers knowledge of subject content & how students learn itActive: opportunities to try it out & discussSupported: external feedback and networks to improve and sustainEvidence based: promotes strategies supported by robust evaluation evidence
What (probably) makes CPD effective?#Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W.-Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. (2007). Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007No. 033). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southwest/pdf/rel_2007033.pdfWei, R. C., Darling-Hammond, L., Andree, A., Richardson, N., Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. Dallas, TX. National Staff Development Council. http://www.becker.k12.mn.us/sites/beckerschools/files/departments/2012/NSDCstudytechnicalreport2009_0.pdfCordingley, P. & Bell, M. (2012) Understanding What Enables High Quality Professional Learning: A report on the research evidence. Centre for the Use of Research Evidence in Education (CUREE); Pearson School Improvementhttp://www.pearsonschoolmodel.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/CUREE-Report.pdfThe new theory of evolution http://www.teacherdevelopmenttrust.org/the-new-theory-of-evolution/
295. Evaluate##Wait for a bad year and/or choose a bad school to start with. Things can only get better. Take on any initiative, and ask everyone who put effort into it whether they feel it worked. No-one wants to feel their effort was wasted.Define improvement in terms of perceptions and ratings of teachers. DO NOT conduct any proper assessments they may disappoint.Only study schools or teachers that recognise a problem and are prepared to take on an initiative. Theyll probably improve whatever you do. Faking school improvement (1)#Conduct some kind of evaluation, but dont let the design be too good poor quality evaluations are much more likely to show positive results.If any improvement occurs in any aspect of performance, focus attention on that rather than on any areas or schools that have not improved or got worse (dont mention them!).Put some effort into marketing and presentation of the school. Once you start to recruit better students, things will improve.Faking school improvement (2)#We are sure this worksThis is so important we need it to workEveryone is working really hard and fully committed to thisEvaluating would be a lot of workWe dont have the data to be able to evaluateWe dont know how to evaluateWe cant do a really good evaluation, so what is the point of doing it badly?We do happy sheets and ask people what they thought of it; isnt that enough?You cant do randomised trials in educationWhat works is different in different schools or contexts
Bad reasons not to evaluate#Think hard about learningFocus on implementationTeachers really matterInvest in good CPDEvaluate
Top tips for improvement#