the process of technological innovation successful commercialization & continuous improvement

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  • Slide 1
  • The Process of Technological Innovation Successful commercialization & continuous improvement
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  • Eight stages of technological innovation 1. Basic research (for general nature laws) 2. Applied research (for specific problems) 3. Development (design for prototyping) 4. Engineering (design for assembly) 5. Manufacturing (design for efficiency & quality) 6. Marketing (design for acceptance & affordability) 7. Promotion (design for diffusion) 8. Improvement & enhancement (design for sustainability)
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  • Corporate innovation process Concept formation Product concept definition Technical analysis Market research & analysis Industry analysis SWOT & business strategy Commitment & support from strategic apex Development Market testing Manufacturing & marketing Promotion & selling
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  • Chain-reaction of successful innovation Scientific invention Engineering development Entrepreneurship Management/strategy Social demand Fit environment
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  • Innovation trajectories Border crossings Inter-disciplines, -parties, -nations, -sectors Emergence of complex technologies Fit to and cause from diverse demands, perspectives, approaches, contexts Age of knowledge and distributed intelligence, KDI Network of knowledge Building and extending the invisible college Learning and intelligent system exploring the human behavior Computing challenge exploit the numeric barrier
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  • Innovation System Concurrent Integration (Bordogna, 1999) Innovation Wealth Creation Sustainable Development Analysis Reduction Discovery of New Knowledge & Basic Laws Societal Needs The Public Good Natural Capital Devices Processes Systems Ideas Information Capital Formation & Investment Synthesis Integration Design Manufacture Maintenance Science Policy Context Engineering Economic Context T e c h n o l o g y
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  • Creative transformation Searching for innovation requirement & change demand Monitoring technological change & organizational change Transformation for sustaining performance On internal structure of R&D, manufacturing On external market of customer, interested parties Successful process of innovation fulfillment Project management & management renew
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  • The Process of Creative Destruction Business leaders usually visualize a market economy in the context of how capitalism administers existing structures, whereas the wiser approach is to understand how it creates and destroys them. Paraphrased from J. Schumpeter Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy Chapter VII, page 84
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  • Creative Transformations The Schumpeterian Factor The interaction of technological innovation with the competitive marketplace is the fundamental driving force in capitalist industrial progress. (Schumpeter, 1942) The normally healthy economy was not one in equilibrium, but one that was constantly being disrupted by technological innovation (The Economist, Schumpeter, 1999)
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  • History of Xerography Market dissatisfaction for document reproduction even so cheap and easy Scientific information Electrostatics, photoconductivity & photoreceptor, sensitization of Se element Entrepreneur Carlson, Battelle, Wilson of Haloid Novelty industry creation & user education Branding for new product Xeros & graphein Xerography and registered trademark Xerox
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  • History of Xerography (ii) 1949, the pioneering copy machine, Xerox A User unfriendly, manually performed by the high-skilled operators Unstable performance Enhancement & Market switching Target the lead user lithographic plate printing Lease rather than sale reduce the novelty risk of durable goods 1955, automatic version, CopyFlo 1958, Xerox 914 for office users the two-part tariff leasing mechanism a successful incentive for copying usage Nationwide retailing & service network
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  • History of Xerography (iii) Scientific improvement New material for cheap and sensitive photoreceptor: carbonic/organic polymer Evolution with laser & IC technology Integrated into computer industry Laser printer
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  • Lessons from Xerography Innovation success was determined by markets eventually Breakthrough the diffusion constraints including designing, technological, economic, political, societal, and even religious factors Visionary enabler entrepreneur & entrepreneurship Systemic improvement process monitor the gap and retest for objective Inter-disciplines evolution with the sources of innovation Luck blessed the risk lover and opportunity seizer
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  • A technological innovation model The case of biomedical devices Concept formation market pull or technological push Feasibility analysis technological, economic, operational Product design and prototype development & testing Engineering & Manufacturing design user interface, P/P ratio, extensible/upgrade capability Meet the FDA requisites the min. quality standard Production & quality control Marketing promotion pricing strategy, technology cycle, market structure, channel selection Customer satisfaction, post/disposal service
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  • Entrepreneur & Entrepreneurship A technologist or marketer possessed with Vision, courage, initiative, concentration, unbendingness, autonomy, ambition Appreciation, motivate himself and others, leadership The good sense of market rather than much more invention Entrepreneur enterprise Intre-preneurship incorporation
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  • The management renew cycle Entrepreneurship style of management for the start-ups or in the emerging stage of industry Organic system for flexibility, effectiveness, and growth Professional management for institutionalization or after the mature stage of industry Bureaucratic system for cost-benefit consideration & efficiency criteria Renewing demand after structural rigidity and industry decline
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  • Venture team Intrepreneurship Imagine the future product concept The gatekeeper of technology & market Plan enabler Project manager A stand alone research center Xerox s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) Keep flexible and innovative
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  • Lessons from Xerox s PARC Vision To be the future information architect and a documentation corporation Acquire SDS data processing Integrate xerography into computer office automation PC and WYSIWYG interface, the Alto series Failure Asynchronous development between PARC and Xerox s bureaucratic structure Location dispersion & communication gap: New York state (E) vs. California state (w) Too few product lines to fill market demand Competition from Japanese firm s high quality copy machines Canon, Sharp, Minolta, etc. and the friendly innovation of add-on carbon cartridge Too concentrated on short-term financial performance to seize the industry dynamics and growth opportunities
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  • Recovery of Xerox s PARC Research on working process as well as new product Innovating anywhere and learning through Innovation transfer to the counterparts in the organization beyond endeavoring to research Promote linkage between technology and market The always partner of research customers To be a responsible profit center Share and broker information for entrepreneurship & new start-ups Motivation incentive by being the Xerox shareholder
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  • The macro view of technological innovation Appropriate context for innovation survival Complements, reformers & rebels Creative society Enjoy freedom without constraints Personal interest/survival rather than public new order Formal & informal club for information sharing Industrial cluster Specialization & cooperative linkage for production, marketing, and international free trading Knowledge exploring & training Education & university
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  • Lessons from Silicon Valley Vision of technology & life Knowledge center/window Facilitating context/infrastructure Venture capital Free mobility of job Weak-tie information network Continuous learning
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  • Lessons from British Midlands Freedom facilitates entrepreneurship Lunar society in the Birmingham of England vs. the Home brew computer club in the Silicon Valle Diversity ignites the spark of innovation Club dialogue promotes the role playing at the other s position Championship drives competition, cooperation, and benchmarking
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  • Factors influencing technological innovation Scientific capability & repository Technology life cycle Investment scale & level Political facilitator Complementary technologies Diffusion mode & rate
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  • Factors impeded/facilitated technological innovation World politic/economic dynamics Communication channel/speed Multiple research centers competition or cooperation relay Launch timing Education/diffusion system Visible/invisible committee Industry policy Mobility barriers Public/private organizational transformation
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  • The innovative Skill Set of 2010 (Bordogna, 1999) Handle projects from initial conception of an idea through to product realization Understand, nurture, and capitalize sustainably on nature Be alpha-numeric literate Articulate team goals, influence others to invest in them, evi