The principles of baking

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The Principles of Baking

The Principles of Baking

Ms. Amelia del Olmo Quingco, MBA

Mixing Methods and TechniquesThe techniques used to mix or combine ingredients affect the bakeshop goods final volume, appearance and texture. Mixing accomplishes some of the followingEven distribution of ingredientsBreakdown of fats and liquids, causing them to blend or emulsifyActivation of the proteins in wheat flour , causing the formation of the elastic structure called glutenThe incorporation of air into a mixture (aeration) to help rise and develop a light texture when baked

Mixing Methods and TechniquesEmulsify to combine a fat and liquid into a homogenous mixture by properly blending ingredients\

Gluten An elastic network of proteins created when wheat flour is moistened and manipulated; it gives structure and strength to baked goods and is responsible for their volume, texture and appearance

Mixing Methods and TechniquesAerateTo incorporate air into a mixture through sifting and mixing; to whip air into a mixture to lighten such as beating egg whites to a foam

Formula Standard term used throughout the industry for a bakeshop recipe; formulas rely on weighing to ensure accurate measuring of ingredients

Mixing Methods and TechniquesMETHODPURPOSEEQUIPMENTBeatingVigorously agitating foods to incorporate air or develop glutenSpoon or electric mixer with paddle attachmentBlendingMixing two or more ingredients until evenly distributedSpoon, rubber spatula, wire whisk or electric mixer with paddle attachmentCreamingVigorously combining softened fat and sugar while incorporating airElectric mixer with paddle attachment on medium speedCuttingIncorporating solid fat into dry ingredients only until lumps of desired size remainPastry cutters, fingers or electric mixer with paddle attachment

Mixing Methods and TechniquesMETHODPURPOSEEQUIPMENTFolding Very gently incorporating ingredients such as whipping cream or whipped eggs into dry ingredients, a batter or creamRubber spatula or balloon whiskKneadingWorking a dough to develop glutenHands or electric mixer with dough hook, if done by hand, the dough must be vigorously and repeatedly folded and turned in a rhythmic pattern

Mixing Methods and TechniquesMETHODPURPOSEEQUIPMENTSiftingPassing one or more dry ingredients through a wire mesh to remove lumps, combine and aerateRotary or drum sifter or mesh strainerStirringGently mixing ingredients by hand until evenly blendedSpoon, whisk or rubber spatulawhippingBeating vigorously to incorporate airWhisk or electric mixer with whip attachment

Mixing Methods and TechniquesThe Importance of Gluten Gluten is tough, rubbery substance created when wheat flour is mixed with water. Flour does not contain gluten, only a dough or batter can contain gluten. It is formed when the proteins in wheat flour are moistened. Gluten development is affected by a number of factors including mixing time and the presence of fat and moisture. Generally, the longer a substance is mixed, the more gluten will develop. However, extreme over mixing in industrial equipment can break down the gluten structure.

Mixing Methods and TechniquesThe Importance of Gluten The type and balance of ingredients in a formula also affect gluten development. Fats coat the protein in flour, inhibiting the formation of the gluten bond. A high-fat cookie dough that contains very little liquid bakes into a crumbly or friable product. Firm bread dough that can be kneaded and shaped before baking requires a higher protein flour than a tender cake. When this dough is made with water, it bakes into a product with a solid structure. When whole milk is used in the same formula, the product is more tender because the milk fat weakens the gluten bond

Mixing Methods and TechniquesThe Importance of Moisture Moisture in the form of water, milk or other liquids, as well as the moisture in ingredients such as fresh fruits or eggs, is of great importance to the final result in baking. Moisture is needed to dissolve ingredients such as salt or chemical leavening in a product. It helps hydrate ingredients such as flour or starch in a formula. And is necessary to activate compounds such as yeast or chemical leavening.

Mixing Methods and TechniquesThe Importance of Moisture Baked goods are made from dough and batters; the moisture content distinguishes between the two.Dough - has a low moisture or water content. Usually prepared by beating, blending, cutting or kneading and is often stiff enough to cut into various shapes. Some common dough are yeast bread dough, cookie dough and pie dough.

Batter generally contains more liquids, fats and sugar than a dough. A batter bakes into softer moister products. Usually prepared by blending, creaming, stirring or whipping and is generally thin enough to pour. Some common types of batter are cake batter, muffin butter and pancake batter

Heat Transfer and the Science of BakingHeat A type of energyWhen a substance gets hot, its molecules have absorbed energy, which causes the molecules to vibrate rapidly, expand and bounce off one another. As the molecules move, they collide with nearby molecules, causing a transfer of heat energy. The faster the molecules within a substance move, the higher its temperature.Heat may be transferred to foods and baked goods in three primary ways:ConductionConvectionRadiation

Heat Transfer and the Science of BakingHeat TransferConductionIs the movement of heat from one item to another through direct contactThe primary heat transfer method in stove top cookingIs also important in baking, ex. When heat energy hits the cake pan or baking sheet placed in a hot oven, heat is conducted in the pan. The metal of the pan then conducts heat to the surface of the batter or dough contained in that panIs relatively a slow method of heat transfer because there must be physical contact to transfer energy from one molecule to adjacent moleculeWater is a better conductor of heat than air

Heat Transfer and the Science of BakingHeat TransferConvectionRefers to the transfer of heat through a fluid, which may be liquid or gasNatural convection occurs because warm gases tend to rise while cooler ones fall, causing a constant natural circulation of heat.In conventional oven, heated air naturally circulates in and around baking chambersMechanical convection relies on fans or stirring to circulate heat more quickly and evenlyConvection ovens are equipped with fans to increase the circulation of air currents, thus speeding up the baking process

Heat Transfer and the Science of BakingHeat TransferRadiationThe transfer of heat energy through waves that move from the heat source to the foodIt does not require physical contact between the heat source and the food being cooked.Infrared cooking

Baking and Cooking MethodsFood can be cooked in air or fat (dry-heat cooking methods) or in water or steam (moist-heat cooking method)Dry-heat Cooking MethodUsing air or fat The principal method employed to bake and cook batter and doughMoist-heat Cooking MethodUses water or steamUsed to tenderize foods and enhance their natural flavorUsed to heat liquid and encourage evaporation resulting in an intensified flavor or a reduction

Heat Transfer and the Science of BakingCommon Bakeshop Cooking MethodsMETHODMEDIUMBAKESHOP PRODUCTSEQUIPMENTDry-heat Cooking MethodBakingAirDough, batter for breads, cakes, cookies, pastries; fruitsOven, convection ovenBroilingAirFruits, glazed custardsOverhead broiler, salamanderDeep FryingFatDoughnuts, frittersDeep-fat fryerPan Frying FatBatter for griddlecakesStove topSauting FatfruitStove top

Heat Transfer and the Science of BakingCommon Bakeshop Cooking MethodsMETHODMEDIUMBAKESHOP PRODUCTSEQUIPMENTMoist-heat Cooking MethodBoilingWater or other liquidsCreams, sauces, fruitsStove topPoachingWater or other liquidsFruits, fresh and driedStove top, ovenSimmeringWater or other liquidsCreams, sauces, fruitsStove top, oven

Stage of BakingGases FormGasses are trappedStarches gelatinizeProteins coagulateWater evaporatesSugars caramelizeCarryover bakingStaling

Stage of BakingGases FormA baked goods texture is determined by the amount of leaving or rise that occurs both before and during baking. These gases are carbon dioxide, steam and air.Air and carbon dioxide are present even before heatingThe formation of gases begins upon mixing and continues as a product is heated until it reaches a temperature of around 170FSteam is one gas formed when heat is applied

Gasses are trappedThe stretchable network of protein created in a batter or dough traps gases in the product.Without the appropriate network of proteins, the gases would just escape without causing the mixture to rise.Proper mixing ensures the appropriate protein development in a batter or dough.

Stage of BakingStarches gelatinizeStarches are complex carbohydrates present in plants and grains such as potatoes, wheat, rice and corn.Flour made from these and other grains is the primary ingredient in most baked productsWhen a mixture of starch and liquid is heated, starches begin to absorb moisture up to 10x their own weight.When starch granules reach a temperature of approx. 140F, they absorb additional moisture and expand. (gelatinization)

Stage of BakingStarches Gelatinize

Stage of BakingProteins CoagulateProteins begin to coagulate (solidify) when the dough or batter reaches a temperature of 160F.Are large, complex molecules found in every living cellAre formed from amino acids that are chemically bonded into long loosely folded chainsIn the presence of heat, the protein chains unfold (denature), which allows them to rebond and solidify into a solid mass. In other words, as proteins cook, they loose moisture, shrink and become firm.

Stage of BakingWater EvaporatesThroughout the baking process, the water contained in the liquid ingredients will turn to steam and evaporate. This steam is a useful leavener During the early stages of baking the product is porous, allowing the gases to escaped readilyAs steam is released the dough or batter dries out, starting from the outside, resulting in the formation of a pale crust.

Stage of BakingSugars Caramelizeas sugars are heated above 320F, they breakdown and darken or caramelize. The result is the gradual darkening of the surface of a baked good.Sugars are simple carbohydrates used by all plants and animals to store energyCaramelization of sugars is responsible for most of the flavors associated with baked goods.The Maillard Reaction (French scientist) the process of sugar breaking down in the presence of protein.Maillard browning results in darkening as well as the development of pleasing, nutty baked flavors,

Stage of BakingCarryover BakingThe physical changes in a baked good do not stop when it is removed from the oven. The residual heat in the hot baking pan and within the product itself, continues the baking process as the product cools.This is why a crisp-style cookie or biscuit may e soft and seem a bit under-baked when removed form the oven; it will finish baking as it cools.

Stage of BakingStaling A change in a baked goods texture and aroma caused by both moisture loss and changes in the structure of the starch granules.Stale products have lost their fresh aroma and are firmer, drier and more crumbly than fresh goodsA change in the location and distribution of water molecules within the productStarch retro-gradation, occurs when starch molecules cool, becoming denser and expelling moisture

THE SCIENCE OF FLAVORFlavorAn identifiable or distinctive quality of a food, drink or other substance perceived with the combined senses of taste, touch and smellMouthfeelThe sensation created in the mouth by a combination of a foods taste, smell, texture and temperatureTasteThe sensations, as interpreted by the brain, of what we detect when food and drink or other substances come in contact with our taste buds

THE SCIENCE OF FLAVORAromaThe sensations as interpreted by the brain, of what we detect when a substance comes in contact with sense receptors in the nose

PalateThe complex of smell, taste and touch receptors that contribute to a persons ability to recognize and appreciate flavorsThe range of an individuals recognition and appreciation of flavors.

THE SCIENCE OF FLAVORTypes of TastesSweet - SourSaltyBitterUmami the 5th taste; refers to the rich, full taste perceived in the presence of the natural amino acid glutamate and its commercially produced counterpart known as monosodium glutamate (MSG)

THE SCIENCE OF FLAVORThe Tastebud

THE SCIENCE OF FLAVORFactors Affecting the Perception of Flavors

Temperature food at warm temperatures offer the strongest taste. But saltiness is perceived differently. The same amount of salt in a solution is perceived more strongly when very cold than when merely cool or warm.

Consistency the thicker item will take longer to reach its peak intensity and will have a less intense flavor.

THE SCIENCE OF FLAVORFactors Affecting the Perception of Flavors

Presence of Contrasting Tastes sweet and sour are considered opposites and often adding one to a food dominated by the other enhances the foods overall tastPresence of Fats - many of the chemical compounds that create tastes and aromas are dissolved in fats occurring naturally in foods or added to foods during cooking. Color food color affect how the consumer perceives the foods flavor before it is even tasted

THE SCIENCE OF FLAVORCompromises to the Perception of TasteAge taste and smell sensitivity decline as people age but it declines at a slower rate than vision and hearing

Health acute conditions and medications can affect the taste and smell

Smoking affects odor sensitivity, as well as taste sensitivity