The Presidency - U.S. Government and... · The Politics of Shared Powers ... The Public Presidency…

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<ul><li><p>The Presidency </p><p>1 </p></li><li><p>Student Essential Knowledge and Skills </p><p> (USG 9B) The student will analyze the structure </p><p>and functions of the executive branch of </p><p>government. </p><p> Including the Constitutional powers of the president </p><p> The growth of presidential power </p><p> And the role of the Cabinet and executive departments. </p><p> (USG 11B) Analyze and evaluate the process of </p><p>electing the President of the United States. </p><p>2 </p></li><li><p>Learning Objectives </p><p>1. Analyze the structure and functions of the </p><p>executive branch of government. </p><p>2. Analyze and evaluate the process of </p><p>electing the President of the United States </p><p>3. Analyze the constitutional powers of the </p><p>president. </p><p>4. Describe the growth of presidential power. </p><p>5. Evaluate the role of the Cabinet and </p><p>departments of the Executive branch. </p><p>3 </p></li><li><p>Introduction: The President </p><p> Presidents operate in an environment filled </p><p>with checks and balances and competing </p><p>centers of power. </p><p> Other policymakers with whom they deal </p><p>with have their own agendas, interests,and </p><p>sources of power. </p><p> Effective presidents must have highly </p><p>developed political skills to mobilize </p><p>influence, manage conflict, negotiate, and </p><p>build compromises. </p><p> Do presidents persuade, or command? </p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>The Presidents </p><p> Great Expectations </p><p> Americans want a president who is </p><p>powerful and who can do good: </p><p>Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, Roosevelt </p><p>and Kennedy. </p><p> But at the same time, they dont want the </p><p>president to get too powerful since we are </p><p>individualistic and skeptical of authority. </p><p>5 </p></li><li><p>The Presidents </p><p> Who They Are </p><p> Formal Requirements: </p><p> Must be 35 years old </p><p> Must have resided in U.S. for 14 years </p><p> Informal Requirements: </p><p> White, Male </p><p> Protestant (except one) </p><p> All manner of professions, but mostly </p><p>political ones (former state governors, </p><p>for example) </p><p>6 </p></li><li><p>The Presidents: How They Got There </p><p> Elections are the normal road to the </p><p>White House </p><p> Once elected, the president gets a term </p><p>of four years. </p><p> In 1951, the 22nd Amendment limited </p><p>the number of terms to two. </p><p> Most Presidents have been elected to </p><p>office. </p><p>7 </p></li><li><p>The Presidents: How They Got There </p><p> Succession and Impeachment </p><p> Vice-President succeeds if the president leaves office due to death (McKinley/TR, FDR/HST, JFK/LBJ) or resignation (Nixon) or convicted of impeachment. </p><p> Impeachment is investigated by the House, and if impeached, tried by the Senate with the Chief Justice presiding. </p><p> Only two presidents have been impeached: A. Johnson &amp; Clinton- neither was convicted. </p><p>8 </p></li><li><p>The Presidents: How They Got There </p><p> Presidential Succession </p><p> The 25th Amendment (1967) permits the vice-president to become acting president if the vice president and the presidents cabinet determine that the president is disabled or the president declares his own disability. </p><p> A recuperated president can reclaim his office. </p><p> Provision is also made for selecting a new vice president when the office becomes vacant. (Ford; Rockefeller) </p><p>9 </p></li><li><p>Constitutional Powers of the </p><p>President </p><p> National Security- </p><p> Commander in Chief of the armed forces </p><p> Make treaties with other nations </p><p> Nominate ambassadors </p><p> Confer diplomatic recognition on other </p><p>governments </p><p>10 </p></li><li><p>Constitutional Powers of the President </p><p> Legislative powers </p><p> Present info on the state of the union to </p><p>Congress </p><p> Recommend legislation to Congress </p><p> Convene &amp; adjourn Congress in certain </p><p>cases </p><p> Veto legislation (Congress has a 2/3 </p><p>override) </p><p>11 </p></li><li><p>Constitutional Powers of the President </p><p> Administrative powers </p><p> Must take care that laws be faithfully </p><p>executed </p><p> Nominate officials </p><p> Request written opinions of </p><p>administrative officials </p><p> Fill vacancies during congressional </p><p>recesses </p><p>12 </p></li><li><p>Constitutional Powers of the </p><p>President </p><p> Judicial </p><p> Grant reprieves and pardons for federal </p><p>offenses </p><p> Appoint federal judges with the </p><p>agreement of a majority of the Senate </p><p>13 </p></li><li><p>Presidential Powers </p><p> The Expansion of Power </p><p> Presidents develop new roles for the </p><p>office </p><p> Presidents expand the power of the office </p><p> Perspectives on Presidential Power </p><p> Through the 50s &amp; 60s a powerful </p><p>President was perceived as good </p><p> From the 70s on, presidential power was </p><p>checked and distrusted by the public </p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>Running the Government: </p><p>The Chief Executive </p><p> The Vice President </p><p> Basically just waits for things to do </p><p> Constitutional job is to be President of the </p><p>Senate </p><p> Recent presidents have given their VPs </p><p>important jobs </p><p> The Cabinet </p><p> Presidential advisors, not in Constitution </p><p> Is made up of the top executives of the Federal </p><p>Departments, confirmed by the Senate </p><p>15 </p></li><li><p>The Executive Office </p><p> Made up of several policymaking and advisory bodies </p><p> Three principle groups: NSC, CEA, OMB </p><p>16 </p></li><li><p>Executive Office of the President </p><p> The National Security Council is the </p><p>committee that links the presidents key </p><p>foreign and military policy advisors. </p><p> The Council of Economic Advisors advises </p><p>the president on economic policy </p><p> The Office of Management and Budget has </p><p>responsibility for preparing the presidents </p><p>budget, which is then sent to Congress. </p><p>17 </p></li><li><p>The White House Staff </p><p> White House Staff included the key aides the </p><p>president sees daily </p><p> Chief of staff, congressional liaison people, press </p><p>secretary, national security advisor, political </p><p>assistants. </p><p> The White House Office is part of the </p><p>Executive Office of the President </p><p> 600+ people, provide the president with a wide </p><p>range of services </p><p> Presidents rely on their staffs for information, </p><p>policy options, and analysis. </p><p>18 </p></li><li><p> The First Lady </p><p> No official government position, but </p><p>many get involved politically </p><p> Recent First Ladies have focused on a </p><p>single issue </p><p>19 </p></li><li><p>Presidential Leadership of Congress: The Politics of Shared Powers </p><p> Chief Legislator: the President is the major shaper of the congressional agenda. </p><p> Veto: Sending a bill back to Congress with his reasons for rejecting it. Can be overridden. </p><p> Pocket Veto: Letting a bill die by not signing it- only works when Congress is adjourned. </p><p> Line Item Veto: The ability to veto parts of a bill. Some state governors have it, but not the president. </p><p> Vetoes are most used to prevent legislation. The threat of a veto can be an effective tool for persuading Congress. </p><p>20 </p></li><li><p> Party Leadership </p><p> presidents must counter the natural tendencies toward conflict between the executive and legislative. </p><p> The Bonds of Party </p><p> The psychological bond of being in the presidents party helps pass legislation </p><p> Slippage in Party Support </p><p> Presidents cannot always count on party support, especially on controversial issues </p><p> Leading the Party </p><p> Because parties are highly decentralized, Presidents can do little to actually lead their party </p><p>21 </p></li><li><p> Presidents improve their chances of </p><p>obtaining support for legislation by </p><p>increasing the number of party members in </p><p>Congress. </p><p> Presidential coattails: legislators who are elected </p><p>because of their support for a presidents </p><p>policies. </p><p> In midterm elections (between presidential </p><p>elections, presidents parties usually lose seats </p><p>in Congress. </p><p>22 </p></li><li><p> Public Support: presidents who have the </p><p>backing of the public have an easier time </p><p>influencing Congress. </p><p> Public Approval </p><p> Operates mostly in the background </p><p> Impact is important, but occurs at the margins </p><p> Mandates: confers added legitimacy on the </p><p>presidents character and policies </p><p> Perception that the voters strongly support the </p><p>presidents character and policies </p><p> Mandates are infrequent, but presidents may claim a </p><p>mandate anyway </p><p>23 </p></li><li><p> Legislative Skills: Presidents influence the </p><p>legislative agenda more than any other </p><p>political figure. </p><p> Influence takes a variety of forms: bargaining, </p><p>making personal appeals, consulting with </p><p>Congress, setting priorities, etc. </p><p> Most important is bargaining with Congress. </p><p> Presidents should use their honeymoon period </p><p>(first year in office) </p><p> President is the nations key agenda builder </p><p>24 </p></li><li><p>The President and National Security Policy </p><p> Chief Diplomat </p><p> Negotiates treaties with other countries </p><p> Treaties must be approved by the Senate </p><p> Use executive agreements to take care of routine </p><p>matters with other countries </p><p> May negotiate for peace between other countries </p><p> Lead U.S. allies in defense &amp; economic issues </p><p>(relies on his ability to persuade) </p><p>25 </p></li><li><p> Commander in Chief </p><p> Writers of the constitution wanted civilian </p><p>control of the military </p><p> Presidents often make important military </p><p>decisions </p><p> Presidents command a standing military and </p><p>nuclear arsenal- unthinkable 200 years ago </p><p>26 </p></li><li><p> War Powers </p><p> Constitution gives Congress the power to </p><p>declare war, but presidents can commit troops </p><p>and equipment in conflicts without </p><p>congressional approval (Korea, Vietnam) </p><p> War Powers Act/Resolution (1973) was </p><p>intended to limit the presidents use of the </p><p>military- but may be unconstitutional </p><p> Presidents continue to test the limits of using the </p><p>military in foreign conflicts </p><p>27 </p></li><li><p> Crisis Manager </p><p> Crisis: a sudden, unpredictable, potentially </p><p>dangerous event. </p><p> The role the president plays can help or hurt the </p><p>presidential image. </p><p> With current technology, the president can act </p><p>much faster than Congress to resolve a crisis. </p><p>28 </p></li><li><p> Working with Congress </p><p> Congress has a central constitutional role in </p><p>making national security policy </p><p> The Founders divided the powers of supply </p><p>(Congress) and command (Exec) </p><p> President has the dominant role in foreign affairs. </p><p> Presidents still have to work with Congress for </p><p>support and funding of foreign policies. </p><p>29 </p></li><li><p>Power from the People: The Public Presidency </p><p> Perhaps the greatest challenge to any </p><p>president is to obtain and maintain the </p><p>publics support. Because presidents are </p><p>rarely in a position to command others to </p><p>comply with their wishes, they must rely on </p><p>persuasion. </p><p>30 </p></li><li><p> Going Public </p><p> Public support is perhaps the greatest source of </p><p>influence a president has. </p><p> Presidential appearances are staged to get the </p><p>publics attention. They are marketing a product </p><p>the presidents policy agenda! </p><p> As the head of state, presidents often perform </p><p>many ceremonial functions- which usually result </p><p>in favorable press coverage. </p><p>31 </p></li><li><p> Presidential Approval </p><p> Receives much effort by the White House </p><p> Product of many factors: predispositions (I only vote </p><p>Republican), honeymoon </p><p> Changes can highlight good / bad decisions </p><p>32 </p></li><li><p> Changes in approval levels appear to be due primarily to the publics evaluation of how the president is handling policy. </p><p> Citizens seem to focus on the presidents efforts and stands on issues rather than on personality. </p><p> Job-related personal characteristics (integrity, leadership skills) also play a role. </p><p> rally events are sudden increases in poll ratings: usually do not last. </p><p>33 </p></li><li><p> Policy Support (using the Bully Pulpit to mobilize public </p><p>support) </p><p> Being an effective speaker is important </p><p> The public may still miss the message </p><p> Mobilizing the Public </p><p> The president may need to get the public to actually act </p><p>by contacting Congress </p><p> Difficult to do since public opinion and political action </p><p>are needed </p><p> The president takes certain risks: what happens if he fails </p><p>to mobilize the public? </p><p>34 </p></li><li><p>The President and the Press </p><p> The press has become the principle </p><p>intermediary between the president and the </p><p>public. </p><p> Relations with the press are an important </p><p>aspect of the presidents efforts to lead </p><p>public opinion. </p><p> Presidents and media tend to conflict: they </p><p>are often adversaries due to different goals. </p><p>35 </p></li><li><p>The President and the Press </p><p> Many people in the White House deal with </p><p>the media, but the press secretary is the main </p><p>contact person. </p><p> Conducts daily press briefings, gives prepared </p><p>announcements, answers questions. </p><p> Media is often more interested in the person, </p><p>not the policies </p><p> News coverage has become more negative </p><p>36 </p></li><li><p>Understanding the American Presidency </p><p> The Presidency and Democracy </p><p> There are still concerns over the president having </p><p>too much power </p><p> Is the president a threat to democracy? </p><p> Concerns over presidential power are generally </p><p>closely related to policy views </p><p> Others argue that in this era of divided </p><p>government, the president cant do enough with </p><p>all the checks and balances in the system. </p><p>37 </p></li><li><p> The Presidency and the Scope of Government </p><p> Some presidents have increased, while others </p><p>have sought to decrease, the functions of </p><p>government. </p><p> It is often said that the American people are </p><p>ideologically conservative and operationally </p><p>liberal. </p><p>38 </p></li></ul>


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