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The PalestinianThe Palestinian--Israeli Management of Israeli Management of Shared Groundwater Aquifers: Shared Groundwater Aquifers: Status, realities and lessons learnedStatus, realities and lessons learned

By:

DR. AMJAD ALIEWI

Director-General of House of Water and Environment, Palestine

Workshop onFormulation of a policy framework to support the establishment of mechanisms for

inter-state cooperation on shared groundwater aquifers in the Mediterranean RegionBeirut 24-25 April 2006

ConclusionsConclusions5.

Guidelines for Comprehensive Framework for the Guidelines for Comprehensive Framework for the Palestinian/Israeli Management of shared Palestinian/Israeli Management of shared Groundwater AquifersGroundwater Aquifers

4.

Difficulties to implement policies and agreements for Difficulties to implement policies and agreements for the management of shared Groundwater Aquifersthe management of shared Groundwater Aquifers

3.

The Political Process and Existing AgreementsThe Political Process and Existing Agreements2.

Shared Groundwater Aquifers between Palestine and Shared Groundwater Aquifers between Palestine and IsraelIsrael

1.

The PalestinianThe Palestinian--Israeli Management of Shared Israeli Management of Shared Groundwater Aquifers: Groundwater Aquifers: Status, Realities and Status, Realities and Lessons LearnedLessons Learned

1.1. Shared Groundwater Aquifers between Palestine Shared Groundwater Aquifers between Palestine and Israeland Israel

Reference Year period: 1980 -1999

The available water resources are shared through:

Transboundary aquifers. The Jordan River. Wadi Runoff.

Analysis of 1998/1999 Data shows:

Shared utilisation of aquifers is 86%/14% in favour of Israel.For all sources including the Jordan River and Wadi Runoff, theoverall spilt is 89%(Israel) and 11% (Palestine).When viewed in terms of per capita consumption, the ratio of Israeli to Palestinian consumption is roughly 4:1

1.1. Shared Groundwater Aquifers between Palestine Shared Groundwater Aquifers between Palestine and Israeland Israel

Israeli and Palestinian utilization of water resources in Historical Palestine (Mcm/yr).

90% 89%

17%0%

10% 11%

100%83%

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

120%

Groundwater Jordan River Runoff Overall

Resource

% of Total PalestinianUtilization% of Total IsraeliUtilization

The Shared groundwater aquifers are:

Western Aquifer Basin

Northeastern Basin

Coastal Aquifer Basin

Shared and non- shared Groundwater Aquifers in Historical Palestine

Shared and non-shared catchments in Historical Palestine.

The map also shows the network of wadi runoffs

PalestineIsrael

Mediterranean

Sea

Coastal aquifer

Leakage from Lower

to Upper Aquifer due

to faults

Upper

Aquifer

Lower and Upper

Aquifers change to

clay and chalk

(non-aquifers)

West

Piezometric level

Upper Aquifer

(Varies considerably

throughout seasons)

Flow from Upper

to Lower Aquifer

across faults

Upper

Aquifer

Valley Aquifer

Schematic Presentation Showing the Extent of Palestinian Aquifers inside Israel

The West Bank Aquifers

N0 20 40 km

MediterraneanSea

WesternBasin

Eastern Basin

NE BasinJenin

Nablus

Ramallah

Jericho

Hebron

Bethlehem

Jerusalem

Dea

d S

ea

Approx groundwaterdivideGroundwater flow

Built up areas

Lake

West Bank

Canal

River

Tamsih(Taninim)

Ras El Ain(Yarkon)

Major spring

A geological Cross Section through Latron Area showing that the Western Aquifer Basin is ideally shared between Palestine and Israel.

In-equitable Utilisation of Shared Groundwater Aquifers led to a huge Gap between the Palestinian Supply and Demand.

0100

200300

400500

600700

800

Mcm

/yr

2000 2005 2010

Year

Palestinian Water Supply-Demand Gap

SupplyDemandGap

Israeli and Palestinian Aquifer utilization (Mcm/yr) through wells and springs (1998/99) in the West Bank

The total utilization (1010 Mcm/yr) exceeded the estimated total average recharge for the three aquifers (679 Mcm/yr according to Oslo IIagreement) by almost 50%.

0100200300400500600700800900

Mcm

/yr

Israeli Share 132.9 147.1 591.6 871.6PalestinianShare

71.9 36.9 29.4 138.2

EAB NEAB WAB Total

Palestinian and Israeli Utilisation of Aquifers inside and outside the West Bank

(all inside West Bank)

60%

7% 1%14%

5%

73% 94%

35%20%

5% 14%

72%

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

EAB NEAB WAB OverallAquifer

%

Palestinian Share

Israeli Share outsideWest Bank

Israeli Share insideWest Bank

Distribution of outcropping aquifer formationsinside and outside the West Bank

88% 91%

70%

12% 9%

30%

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

EAB NEAB WAB Basin

Outside

Inside

The 12%outcrop of EAB inside Israel is insignificant for aquifer utilisation.

Geographic distribution of spring dischargefor the EAB , NEAB and WAB

94%

19%5%

54%

81%95%

46%

6%

0%10 %20 %30 %40 %50 %60 %70 %80 %90 %

100 %

EAB NEAB WAB Overall Basin

outsidethe WestBankWestBank

Control of EAB, NEAB and WAB springs inside and outside the West Bank.

142

49

93

0

50

100

150

Basin

[Mcm/yr]

Israeli controlled Palestinian controlled Total discharge

Palestinian controlled 46 18 3

Israeli controlled 97 75 47

Total discharge 142 93 49

EAB NEAB WAB

301 313

385

332 347

400

353 370398

319339 356

308

437408

385

333355

381 393

336

240

308 317

367347

368404.9

571.6

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

1971

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

[Mcm/yr]

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

rain [mm/yr]

Rainfall WAB Palestinian avg share INJECTION

Mismanagement of Western Aquifer Basin By Israel since they alone control this shared Aquifer Basin.

In1999 Israel pumped 572 Mcm/yr when rainfall was about 480 mm/yr (i.e, reharge in that year was about 225 Mcm/yr), meaning they abstracted 2.5 times its recharge.

Israeli and Palestinian per capita water consumption (1999)

2079100%2381.2Total

496887%20745,869,200Israeli

48722%54.8172,200Israeli Settlements

123911%252.42,895,683Palestinian

Ratio of Palestinian to

IsraeliConsumption

Consumption(l/c/d)

% ofAllocation

ConsumptionFor All

Purposes(Mcm/yr)

PopulationCommunity

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Palestinian Israeli Settlements Israeli

Communityl/c

/d Consuption

Israeli and Palestinian per capita water consumption (1999)

Ratio of Israeli Settlements to Palestinian Consumption

Palestinian Israeli Settlements

Ratio of Israeli to Palestinian Consumption

Palestinian Israeli

The degree to which the needs of a basin state may be satisfied, without causing appreciable harm and substantial injury to a co-basin state.

F9

The availability of other resources.F8

The comparative costs of alternative means of satisfying the economic and social needs of each basin states.

F7

The population dependent on the waters of the basin in each basin State.F6

The economic and social needs of each basin state.F5

The past utilization of the waters of the basin, including in particular existing utilization.

F4

The climate affecting the basin.F3

The hydrology of the basin, including in particular the contribution of water by each basin.

F2

The geography of the basin, including in particular the extent of the drainage area in the territory of each basin state.

F1

DefinitionFactorFactors affecting Shared Groundwater Aquifer between Palestine and Israel

Alternative equity standards (share in percent)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

%

Palestine ShareIsrael Share

Palestine Share 89 51 82 18 32 40 96.6 70 32Israel Share 11 49 18 82 68 60 3.4 30 68

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9

Weight of alternative equity standards (Based on opinion of experts)

1002101471016101516Average weight

(percent)

TotalF9F8F7F6F5F4F3F2F1

Equity Factor

First Stage:

The Declaration of Principles signed on 13 September 1993 (Oslo I) which was the first bilateral agreement between the Palest

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