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  • Raymond W. Novaco, Ph.D.




    ond W. N

    ovaco, Ph.D.The

    NovacoAn ger

    S caleand

    ProvocationInventor y The Novaco Anger Scale

    andProvocation Inventory



    Additional copies of this manual (W-348B) may be purchased from WPS.Please contact us at 800-648-8857 or

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    The Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory(NAS-PI) is a two-part test designed to assess anger as aproblem of psychological functioning and physical health andto assess therapeutic change. It was initially developed inconjunction with the MacArthur Foundation Network onMental Health and Law (Novaco, 1994). Developed andstandardized with both community and clinical populations, itis intended to be used as a measurement tool for research,individual assessment, and outcome evaluation.

    Anger is a normal emotion that has considerable adaptivevalue for coping with lifes adversities. Anger can facilitateperseverance in the face of frustration or injustice, and it canmobilize psychological resources to energize behaviors thattake corrective action. The capacity for anger is a survivalmechanism. It provides for personal resilience, it is a guardianof self-esteem, and it potentiates the ability to redressgrievances and to boost determination to overcome obstacles topersonal happiness. These important adaptive functions servedby anger are, however, offset by the role of anger in activatingaggressive behavior, by its involvement in stress-related healthproblems, by its potential to damage important socialrelationships, and by its entanglement with other distressedemotions, such as sadness, fear, and disappointment.

    Anger is an important subject for mental health andsocial service professionals who work in community, hospital,and school settings, not only because it is a significant activatorof violent behavior, but also because it is evoked by manystress-inducing circumstances, such as work pressures, familyhardships, and traumatic experiences. Since the arousal ofanger typically interferes with information processing, itdetracts from prudent thought and considerate action. Thus,anger typically needs to be regulated in order to maintainefficient functioning and problem solving.

    Across a wide range of clinical disorders, anger has beenfound to be a significant feature meriting both assessment andtreatment. The central problematic characteristic of anger in thecontext of clinical conditions is that it is dysregulated so thatits activation, expression, and effects occur without appropriatecontrols. Unregulated anger has been found to be associatedwith physical and psychological health impairments. In therealm of physical health, chronic anger reactivity and angersuppression have been established as having detrimental effectson the cardiovascular system that are related to mortality. Withregard to psychological well-being, anger occurs in conjunctionwith a wide range of psychiatrically classified disorders,including a variety of impulse control dysfunctions, mood

    disorders, personality disorders, and forms of schizophrenia,especially paranoid schizophrenia. The activation of anger haslong been recognized as a feature of clinical disorders that resultfrom trauma, such as dissociative disorders, brain-damagesyndromes, and especially posttraumatic stress disorder. Angeralso appears in mental state disturbances produced by generalmedical conditions, such as dementia, substance abusedisorders, and neurological dysfunctions resulting fromperinatal difficulties.

    Recurrent anger, often a product of troubled life histories,is commonly targeted for change by mental health and socialservice professionals. In providing interventions for anger as aproblem condition, human service professionals seek to evaluatewhether those intervention efforts have produced beneficialresults. Because the disposition to become angry is ofteningrained in a dysfunctional style of dealing with lifesadversities, its utility can render it resistant to treatment.Assessing the degree of change in anger disposition is animportant task for those concerned with providing care for peoplewith anger and aggression problems.

    General Description

    The NAS-PI is a two-part, self-report questionnaire thatyields the six scores listed in Table 1. The Novaco Anger Scale(NAS) contains 60 items that can be completed inapproximately 15 minutes. NAS items focus on how anindividual experiences anger. The NAS yields five scoresCognitive (COG), Arousal (ARO), Behavioral (BEH), andAnger Regulation (REG) subscale scores, and a NAS Totalscore. The Provocation Inventory (PI) contains 25 items thatcan be completed in 10 minutes or less. PI items focus on thekinds of situations that lead to anger in five content areasdisrespectful treatment, unfairness, frustration, annoying traitsof others, and irritationsto produce a single Total PI score.Whenever possible, the two parts of the questionnaire shouldbe administered together. They can be administered separatelywhen time is at a premium or respondent fatigue is of concern.The purpose of an assessment may also dictate a specific focuson either differentiated components of anger disposition(NAS) or on anger reactivity to different situations ofprovocation (PI).

    The NAS and the PI were standardized on an age-stratified sample of 1,546 persons, ages 9 to 84. Separatenorms are provided for preadolescents/adolescents (ages 9 to18) and adults (ages 19 and older). The instrument was


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  • developed for use with both normal and clinical samples, and itcan be used with persons who are mentally disordered ordevelopmentally disabled. (Items may need to be read to thosein the latter two groups.) It was written so that it could be readby someone with elementary (fourth grade) reading ability.The response format for the NAS is a 3-point scale withresponse options of 1 = Never true, 2 = Sometimes true, and 3 = Always true. This response format was developed for theNAS to maintain the simplicity of True/False endorsement,while providing greater variability in responses than can beachieved with dichotomous responses. For the PI, the responsescale is a rating of the level of anger experienced in a particularsituation, ranging from 1 = Not at all angry to 4 = Very angry.

    The NAS-PI has consistently been found to have goodreliability across many different samples. Internal reliabilityestimates in the standardization sample were .94 for the NASTotal score and .95 for the PI Total score. For the NAS subscales,reliability estimates range from .76 to .89, with a median valueof .83. Validity work has demonstrated that NAS-PI scores havesubstantial correlations in expected directions with scores onother measures of anger and hostility, observers ratings of angrybehaviors, the occurrence of violent behavior, and successfulcompletion of anger management interventions. Thepsychometric properties of the NAS-PI are presented in detail inchapter 5 of this manual.

    Principles of Use

    To obtain a meaningful assessment of anger, a number ofgeneral principles should be kept in mind. First, like allpsychological constructs, anger is an abstraction that has manyconcrete or observable referents and many ways of beingmeasured, none of which constitutes a pure index of anger.Thus, accuracy of assessment is enhanced by the use of a varietyof measurement procedures, seeking convergence ortriangulation across different types of measures. The NAS-PI isdesigned to measure anger disposition, assessing trait-likeaspects of anger responding or anger response readiness. It isthus different from behavioral measures of anger reactions tosituational provocation and from measures of the amount ofanger an individual is experiencing at the time of the assessment.When formulating interpretations of NAS-PI results, therefore,information from other anger assessment procedures, such asanger ratings given by trained observers, clinical interviews, ormeasurements of physiological arousal, should be considered.

    Another issue to consider when using the NAS-PI is that,because of the reactive nature of anger and its sensitivity to a

    wide range of situational factors, it is best to assess anger atdifferent points in time, just as one might want to obtain bloodpressure and heart rate measurements at different times andlocations to get the most complete picture of cardiovascularfunctioning. As well, the time and test situation in which theanger measures are obtained should be selected with care.Attention should be given to minimizing contextual factors thatare likely to interfere with obtaining accurate results. Forexample, if a person believes that reporting high levels of angerwill result in undesirable consequences (such as disapproval,negative reports, loss of privileges, or increased detention), it is very likely that the level of anger reported will becorrespondingly attenuated.

    High scores on self-report measures of anger are generallyless ambiguous than low scores. There are many circumstancesin which a person might report a lower level of anger than isvalid for them, but there are few circumstances in which aperson would want to report a higher level of anger than is true.

    Importantly, it should also be recognized that assessmentscores for any particular person are meaningful primarily inrelation to the average scores for a comparable population andin relation to that persons own previous scores. Users of theNAS-PI should take these general principles into account.

    The NAS-PI can be administered to an individual or agroup by a trained technician. As described in chapter 2, rapportshould be established with the respondent, and efforts should bemade