The Masterpieces of European Art 1876

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    THE

    MASTERPIECESOF

    EUROPEAN ART BYP. T. Sandhurst and James Stothert,

    ILLUSTRATED WITH

    NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD AND ONE HUNDREDAND ONE ENGRAVINGS ON STEEL

    FROM THE

    ORIGINAL PAINTINGS OR SCULPTURES.

    PHILADELPHIAGEBBIE & BARRIE Publishers

    COPYRIGHTED

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    PACK.

    List of Steel Engravings of Paintings viList of Steel Engravings of Sculpture viiiIntroduction : Egyptian and Asiatic Painting ixItalian School, First Part iItalian School, Second Part . . 17German School 85Netherland School 141Spanish School 177French School 205Belgic and other Schools 254Table of Engravings on Wood printed with the Text ... 265Index 267

    V

    _85014

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    vi CONTEXTS.

    STEEL ENGRAVINGS OF PAINTINGS.ARTIST. ENGRAVER. . .

    The Monastery Achenbach, E. Goodall. 94Judith and Holofcrncs Allori. J.Carter .;Pastime in Ancient Egypt AlmaTadema, L C.W. Sharpe 176The Sibyl Angeio, .'/. AJ. Didter 6Hie Reading Lesson Anker, A A. ami E. Winn 24KThe Captives in Babylon Btndemann J. C. Armxtage 104Oxen Ploughing Bonkeur, Rosa P. Moran 23aThe Ring of St. Mark Bordimi. C. Geyer 14The End of the Day Breton, Jules L. Flameng 228Reading the Bible Brian, Gustare Rajon 230The Critics Browne, A/me. //..... C.W. Sharpe 234The Spring of Life Campotosto, //. J. C. Armxtage 76St. Mark'sThe Bucentaur Canaletti, A J. B. Allen 58Silence Carracci, A G. Levy 30Sslv.in Calm Claude Lorraine .5. Bradshaw 206The Reproof Co

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    CONTENTS.ARTIST. ENGRAVER. PAGE.

    St. Francis d'Assisi Murillo L. Flameng. 196The Infant St. John Murillo Lumb Stocks 202The Foot-Bath Plassan, A. E P. Pelee 242Studio of Van der Velde Poitevin, E. C. C. IV. Sharpe 256Daughter of Zion Portaels, J. F. IV. Greatbach 258Milking Time Potter, P. /. Godfrey 168The Shepherds of Arcadia Poussin, N. F. F. Walker 205Morning Prud'/ion L. Flameng. 218Angels of the Madonna Raphael. F. Lutz 1Salome Regnault, Henri. Rajon 226The Beauty of Albano Reiilel, A Lumb Stocks 144Weary Travelers Rembrandt. Mauduit 15Soldiers Gambling Rosa, Salvator Lumb Stocks 52Mary Anointing the Feet of Jesus Rubens, P. P. IV. Greatbach 154The Wife of Rubens Rubens, P. P J. de Mare 85Marguerite at the Fountain Schaffer, Ary L. Flameng. 220The Sisters Sohn, Carl. P. Lightfoot 90Ariadne and Bacchus Tintoretto, J. G. Goldberg 28Titian's Model Titian .S. Smith 10The Cow Doctor Tschaggeny, C. J. Couscn 258Marriage of St. Catherine Van Dyck IV. Ridgivay 164Charity Van Eycken,J. P. Lightfoot 252Phillip IV Velasquez W. Haussoullier 188Passing the Brook Verboeckhoven, E J. Cousen 256The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian Veronese, P. C. Ceyer 16The Death of Columbus Wappers, Baron D. T. Desvachez 254Insanity of Van der Hooge IVauters, E L. Monzies 252Lady Constance Winterhalter, F. T. Vernon 136Hawking Party at Rest Wouvermans, P R. IVa/lis 172Russian Peasants' Home Yvon, A R. C. Bell. 244The King's Favorite Zamacois, D. E Durand. 184Venice Zeim, F. L. Gaucherel. 228The Waterfall Zuccharelli, F E. Radclyffe 64

    STEEL ENGRAVINGS OF SCULPTURE.Schiller . . Begas, R . W. Roffe 118Hebe Canova W. II. Mote 62Entre deux Amours Carrier- Belleuse IV. Roffc 246Cupid Captured by Venus Fontana, G G. Stodart 80The Lion in Love Gee/s, IV J. H. Baker 120Medicine Hahnel, E G. Stodart 148The Leopard Hunter Jerichau R. A. Artlett xiiiA Scene of the Deluge Lucardi, V. G. Stodart 68Europa McDowell, P. W. Roffe TitleThe Sleep of Sorrow and Dream of Joy .... Monti, R E. IV. Stodart 72Cornelia Moreau, M. G. Stodart. 250Love the Ruler Reilschel, E. F. A R. A. Artlett 10SProtecting Angels Reitschel, E. F. A E. Roffe noThe Filatrice Schadoiv E. Roffe 132The Bavaria Schwanthaler G. R. Hall. 100A Basket of Loves Tlwrwaldsen E. IV. Stodart. ixPsyche Von Hover, IV. J. H. Baker 140

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    EGYPTIAN AND ASIATIC PAINTING.

    'HE daughter of Dibutades, a potter of Corinth, whilst bidding farewell one eveningto her lover, was struck by the distinctness of his shadow cast by the light of a lamp onthe plaster wall of her dwelling. The idea occurred to her to preserve the image of her

    beloved by tracing with a pointed implement at hand the outline of his figure on thewall ; and when her father the potter came home, he, appreciating the importance of herwork, rude though it was, cut the plaster out within the drawing she had thus accomplished,took a cast in clay from it, and baked it with his other pottery. Such is the well-known

    Greek tradition, assigning a simultaneous origin to the graphic and plastic arts, and claiming both as ofGreek invention. But unfortunately for the truth of this pretty story, these arts were known and practisedlong before even the original Pelasgians had settled in Greece; indeed, it seems certain that they weremerely transmitted to Greece from Egypt, in which country they had been long cultivated before they wereacquired by any of the Indo-European nations.

    Amongst the remains that have been discovered in various countries of Europe belonging to those earlypre-historic periods, called by archaeologists respectively the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages, many vessels,utensils, metals, and ornaments have been found engraved with rich and delicate tracery, and remarkablefor their graceful shape and elegant proportion, proving that there must have been a distinct recognition ofartistic beauty and fitness even at that early period. These belong, certainly, more especially to the bronzeage ; for the rough earthenware vessels and flint arrow-heads of the stone age cannot strictly be reckonedas works of art; but even the poor stone man hewing his square coffin may have been moved to give agreater finish and merit to his work, in obedience to an impulse, unrecognized, no doubt, towards artisticperfection.

    lx

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    MASTERPIECES OF EUROPEAN ART.Looking onward from those dimly seen ageswhose existence is only revealed to us by means of such

    works as have been mentionedwe come next upon the gigantic monuments of EGYPT, whit h st.ind at thebeginning of history, as if to mark the boundaries of our knowledge. Before them everything is vagueand mythical, but after their erection we are enabled to proceed U|>on something like historical data, andto reckon the succession of centuries and dynasties. Hut we must not forget that the pyramids, whilst theythus form the starting point of history, point back also to long ages of endeavor, before the wonderfulknowledge and skill displayed in their construction could have been attained. It is strange, perhaps, thatno archaic remains of Egyptian art have ever been discovered} no traces of the rude and simple efforts ofan early people. Hut so it is. Everything in Egypt, at the moment we first catch sight of it, seems tohave been long established on the same basis that we find enduring until the end of its history.

    the origin of (Mintingthe youngest born of three sister artsdates back beyond our knowledge.It i> impossible to say when the Egyptians first practised it, but the paintings in the tombs, many of whicharc referred to the fourth and fifth dynasties, that is to say, to a period not less than two thousand fourhundred years before our era, or upwards of four thousand years ago, reveal an art already far advancedbeyond infancy. Pliny, indeed, tells us that the Egyptians boasted of having been masters of paintingfor more than six thousand years before it was acquired by the Greeks, and possibly this was not such avain boast, as he imagined.

    The earliest paintings that have been brought to light in Egypt are those in the tombs around thepyramids, supposed to be those of individuals living in the reigns of the founders of the pyramids and theirimmediate successors. Next come those of the sepulchral grottoes of Beni Hassan, of the twelfth dynastywhich afford a variety of representations of private life. From these and similar works in other places,much of our knowledge of the manners and habits of the ancient Egyptians is derived. Scenes of husbandry,such as ploughing, reaping, gathering and pressing the grape; l>eating hemp; the various trades of carjienter,boat-builder, potter, leather-cutter, glass-blower, and others; scenes of fashionable life, amongst which afavorite one is the reception of guests at a banquet; hunting parties, duck-catching, and fishing, everythingthat is killed being in each cane registered by a scribe; wrestling exercises, comprising games of variouskinds; darning; musical entertainments, the instruments being principally harps, lyres, guitars, drums, andtambourines ; funeral processions, chariots and articles of furniture belonging to the deceased, are some ofthe principal subjects that occur on the walls of these tombs. But the subject most frequently met with isa representation of the I.ast Judgment, where the deeds of the deceased, typified by a heart or thefuneral vase containing it, are weighed in a l>alance by Anubis and Horus against a figure of Thmei (Truth)placed in the opposite scale, a symbolism that reminds one forcibly of the mediaeval representations of thesame subject, in which St. Michael, in like manner, weighs the souls of the departed in his balance;but it is remarkable, that in the Egyptian symbolism we have not the detailed representation of the torturesof the wi< ked that the Mediaeval artist delighted to depict. Only Cerberus, the guardian of the Hall ofJustice, crouches l>efore Osiris, the Supreme Judge, to prevent any from entering his presence who have beenfound wanting in the balance against Truth. Forty-two assessors of the dead, or avengers of crime, also arcrepresented assisting at the trial as witnesses for and against the deceased. The transport of the lwdyafter death over the sacred lake in a boat, is another subject often met with, and was no doubt theorigin of the river Styx and the ferry-boat of Charon, of Greek symbolism. Sacrifices to the dead some-times occur.

    There are several Egyptian paintings of great interest preserved amongst the numerous other remainsof Egyptian art in the British Museum. Unfortunately, the originally brilliant colors of these have faded, amimany of them arc now fast decaying; but when first discoveredsuch at least as had not been exposed tothe influence of the atmospheretheir colors were as bright ami pure as when they were first painted. Red,vellow, green and blue, with black and white, were the < olors employee). These were applied singly, so thatno variety of tint was produced. Different colors were used for different things, but almost invariably thesame color for the same thing. Thus men and women were usually red the men several shades darker thanthe womenwater blur, birds blue and green, and so on. The Egyptians painted their walls; they painted

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    A BASKET OF LOVESengraved by e . w. stodart , from the bas-relief by thorwaldsen.

    at Stockholm)

    BBIE

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    INTRODUCTION. xitheir roofs, their pillars, their obelisks, their bas-reliefs and their sphinxes. Even granite was painted, exceptwhen its surface was so polished as to have sufficient color of itself. Painting on glass, on terra-cotta andon metal- was also practised by the Egyptians.

    The Art of Assyria, as revealed to us by the excavation of the buried palaces of Nineveh, was derivedfrom Egypt, and although modified to a certain extent by the character of the people and the nature of thematerialdried bricksthat they used for building, it remained from first to last unchanged in its essentialfeatures. The conditions necessary for a free development were wanting, in fact, even more under the slavishdespotisms of central Asia than in the priest-governed country of Egypt.

    Nothing is now left of the great city of Babylon but a row of shapeless heaps of rubbish, coveredover with sand ; but the famous palace of Nebuchadnezzar is described by ancient writers as having beenliterally covered with paintings on the outside as well as the interior, and even the ordinary houses of thecity are said to have been similarly adorned. The numerous fragments of glazed tiles that have been foundin the neighborhood, painted in rich colors with animals, trees and flowers, testify in some degree to thetruth of these accounts, and call up, even at the present day, a dim vision of the glory, the beauty andthe pride of what was once Babylon the Great.

    Like the Egyptians, the Assyrians seem to have used color wherever it was possible. Their bas-reliefs,executed in delicate white alabaster, were generally painted, and, as may be seen by many traces left, instrong colors. Scenes of real life, the deeds, the wars, the hunts of their kings and rulers, were the subjectsusually representedthe whole aim of these representations being the self-glorification of one despotic rulerafter another. They mostly say, I, Assurizirpal, or I, Sargon, the mighty king, killed so many enemies, tookso many towns, and carried into captivity so many prisoners, and gained so much plunder. On the otherhand, a fantastic symbolism prevails in their expression of religious belief; and their gods, like those ofEgypt, unite human and animal natures.

    The Persians found in fire such a simple and noble symbol to express their idea of God, whom theyworshipped as the spirit of light and warmth, that they had but little need of art to set forth their religiousbelief. Such remains as exist of Persian art, more especially the ruins of the Palace of Persepolis, show thatthey adopted the Assyrian style in their architectural and plastic works.

    The Hebrews were forbidden by the law of Moses from making any likeness of the Deity; and as wealways find the art of a nation depending to a great extent on the support given to it by the national religion,it is not surprising that no distinct Hebrew style of art was developed. Hebrew art, therefore, must beregarded as derived from the Phoenicians and the other nations with whom the Jews came in contact, andthus had its root in Egypt ; for the art of the Phoenici...