the journey to the west, revised edition, volume 2 soothill a dictionary of chinese buddhist terms,

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  • Anthony C. Yu is the Carl Darling Buck Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus in the Humanities and Professor Emeritus of Religion and Literature in the Divinity School; also in the Departments of Comparative Literature, East Asian Languages and Civilizations, and English Language and Literature, and the Committee on Social Thought. His scholarly work focuses on comparative study of both literary and religious traditions.

    Publication of this volume was made possible by a grant from the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange (USA).

    The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637 The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London © 2012 by The University of Chicago All rights reserved. Published 2012. Printed in the United States of America

    21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 1 2 3 4 5

    ISBN-13: 978-0-226-97133-9 (cloth) ISBN-13: 978-0-226-97134-6 (paper) ISBN-13: 978-0-226-97141-4 (e-book) ISBN-10: 0-226-97133-3 (cloth) ISBN-10: 0-226-97134-1 (paper)

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Wu, Cheng'en, ca. 1500–ca. 1582, author. [Xi you ji. English. 2012] The journey to the West / translated and edited by Anthony C. Yu. — Revised edition. pages ; cm

    Summary: The story of Xuanzang, the monk who went from China to India in quest of Buddhist scriptures. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 978-0-226-97131-5 (v. 1: cloth : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 0-226-97131-7 (v. 1.: cloth : alkaline

    paper) — ISBN: 978-0-226-97132-2 (v. 1 : pbk. : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 0-226-97132-5 (v. 1 : pbk. : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 978-0-226-97140-7 (v. 1 :e-book) (print) — ISBN: 978-0-226-97133-9 (v. 2: cloth : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 0-226-97133-3 (v. 2 : cloth : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 978-0-226-97134-6 (v. 2 : paperback : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 0-226-97134-1 (v. 2 : paperback: alkaline paper) — ISBN: 978-0-226- 97141-4 (v. 2 : e-book) (print) — ISBN: 978-0-226-97136-0 (v. 3: cloth : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 0-226- 97136-8 (v. 3 : cloth : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 978-0-226-97137-7 (v. 3 : paperback : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 0-226-97137-6 (v. 3 :paperback : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 978-0-226-97142-1 (v. 3 : e-book) (print) — ISBN: 978-0-226-97138-4 (v. 4 : cloth : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 0-226-97138-4 (v. 4 : cloth : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 978-0-226-97139-1 (v. 4 : paperback : alkaline paper) — ISBN: 978-0-226-97143-8 (v. 4 : e- book) 1. Xuanzang, ca. 596–664—Fiction. I. Yu, Anthony C., 1938–, translator, editor. II. Title. PL2697.H75E5 2012 895.1'346—dc23


    This paper meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper).


    The Journey to the West

    Translated and Edited by Anthony C. Yu

    The University of Chicago Press Chicago & London

  • FOR Nathan and Charlotte Scott

  • Contents

    Acknowledgments, Revised Edition Acknowledgments, First Edition Abbreviations

    26. Amid the Three Islands Sun Wukong seeks a cure; With sweet dew Guanshiyin revives a tree. 27. The cadaver demon three times mocks Tripitaka Tang; The holy monk in spite banishes Handsome Monkey King. 28. At Flower-Fruit Mountain a pack of fiends hold assembly; At the Black Pine Forest Tripitaka meets demons. 29. Free of his peril, River Float arrives at the kingdom; Receiving favor, Eight Rules invades the forest. 30. A deviant demon attacks the true Dharma; The Horse of the Will recalls Mind Monkey. 31. Zhu Eight Rules provokes the Monkey King to chivalry; Pilgrim Sun with wisdom defeats the monster. 32. On Level-Top Mountain the sentinel brings a message; At Lotus-Flower Cave Wood Mother meets disaster. 33. Heresy deludes the True Nature; Primal Spirit helps the Native Mind. 34. The demon king’s plotting entraps Mind Monkey; The Great Sage, ever adroit, wangles the treasures. 35. Heresy uses power to oppress the proper Nature; Mind Monkey, bagging treasures, conquers deviate demons. 36. When Mind Monkey is rectified, the nidānas cease; Smash through the side door to view the bright moon. 37. The ghost king visits Tripitaka Tang at night; Wukong, through wondrous transformation, leads the child. 38. The child queries his mother to learn of deviancy and truth; Metal and Wood, reaching the deep, see the false and the real. 39. One pellet of cinnabar elixir found in Heaven; A king, dead three years, lives again on Earth.

  • 40. The child’s playful transformations confuse the Chan Mind; Ape, Horse, Spatula gone, Wood Mother, too, is lost. 41. Mind Monkey is defeated by fire; Wood Mother is captured by demons. 42. The Great Sage diligently calls at South Sea; Guanyin with compassion binds the Red Boy. 43. An evil demon at Black River captures the monk; The Western Ocean’s dragon prince catches the iguana. 44. The dharma-body in primal cycle meets the force of the cart; The mind, righting monstrous deviates, crosses the spine-ridge pass. 45. At the Three Pure Ones Abbey the Great Sage leaves his name; At the Cart Slow Kingdom the Monkey King shows his power. 46. Heresy flaunts its strength to mock orthodoxy; Mind Monkey in epiphany slays the deviates. 47. The holy monk’s blocked at night at Heaven-Reaching River; Metal and Wood, in compassion, rescue little children. 48. The demon, raising a cold wind, sends a great snow fall; The monk, intent on seeing Buddha, walks on layered ice. 49. Tripitaka meets disaster and sinks to a water home; To bring salvation, Guanyin reveals a fish basket. 50. Nature follows confused feelings through lust and desire; Faint spirit and moved mind meet a demon chief.

    Notes Index

  • Acknowledgments, Revised Edition

    My thanks are due to the Mellon Foundation for its continuing support through the extension in dispersal of fellowship fund for needed expenses. Dr. Yuan Zhou, Curator of the East Asian Collections in the library of the University of Chicago and his able staff have also been unfailing in their assistance. As I was preparing this volume, the sad news arrived on the death (in April 2010) of Professor D.C. Lau, a distinguished scholar of the Chinese University of Hong Kong known world-wide for his translations of the Analects, the Mencius, and the Daodejing. I owe him an incalculable debt for the genial friendship bestowed since our first meeting in 1975, the generous sharing of scholarly materials and knowledge, the gift of his late father’s private volume of Chinese lyrics that helped to foster and expand my own interest in the genre, and, over the years, the invaluable lessons (many of which involving specific linguistic problems related to Journey to the West) in the demanding art of translation. He was the kindest mentor whom this humble expression of gratitude and bereavement can never repay.

  • Acknowledgments, First Edition

    I wish to express my gratitude to the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation for the award of a Fellowship (1976–1977), during which period I was able to complete the translation of this volume of The Journey to the West. My special thanks are due to Najita Tetsuo, Director of the Center for Far Eastern Studies at the University of Chicago, for his support and provision of needed research funds; to Mrs. Susan Fogelson, for expert assistance in the preparation of the manuscript; and to Mr. Ma Tai-loi of the Far Eastern Library, the University of Chicago, for invaluable help in research.

  • Abbreviations

    Antecedents Glen Dudbridge, The “Hsi-yu chi”: A Study of Antecedents to the Sixteenth-Century Chinese Novel (Cambridge, 1970)

    Bodde Derk Bodde, Festivals in Classical China (Princeton and Hong Kong, 1975)

    BPZ Baopuzi , Neipian and Waipian. SBBY BSOAS Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies Campany Robert Ford Campany, To Live as Long as Heaven and Earth: A

    Translation and Study of Ge Hong’s “Traditions of Divine Transcendents” (Berkeley, 2002)

    CATCL The Columbia Anthology of Traditional Chinese Literature, ed. Victor Mair (New York, 1994)

    CHC The Cambridge History of China, eds. Denis Twitchett and John K. Fairbank (15 vols. in multiple book-length parts. Cambridge and New York, 1978–2009)

    CHCL The Columbia History of Chinese Literature, ed. Victor Mair (New York, 2001)

    CJ Anthony C. Yu, Comparative Journeys: Essays on Literature and Religion East and West (New York, 2008)

    CLEAR Chinese Literature: Essays Articles Reviews CQ China Quarterly DH Daoism Handbook, ed. Livia Kohn (Leiden, 2000) DHBWJ Dunhuang bianwenji , ed. Wang Zhongmin (2 vols.,

    Beijing, 1957) DJDCD Daojiao da cidian , ed. Li Shuhuan (Taipei, 1981) DJWHCD Daojiao wenhua cidian , ed. Zhang Zhizhe

    (Shanghai, 1994) DZ Zhengtong Daozang (36 vols. Reprinted by Wenwu, 1988).

    Second set of numbers in JW citations refers to volume and page number.

    ET The Encyclopedia of Taoism, ed. Fabrizio Pregadio (2 vols., London and New York, 2008)

  • FSZ Da Tang Da Ci’ensi Sanzang fashi zhuan , comp. Huili and Yancong . T 50, #2053. Text cited is that printed in SZZSHB.

    1592 Xinke chuxiang guanban dazi Xiyouji , ed. Huayang dongtian zhuren . Fasc. rpr. of Jinling Shidetang edition (1592) in Guben xiaoshuo jicheng , vols. 499–502 (Shanghai, 1990)

    FXDCD Foxue da cidian , comp. and ed., Ding Fubao (fasc. rpr. of 1922 ed. Beijing, 1988)

    HFTWJ Liu Ts’un-yan [Cunren] , Hefengtang wenji (3 vols., Shanghai, 1991)

    HJAS Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies HR History of Religions Herrm


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