The idea of europe from antiquity to the european union

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The idea of europe from antiquity to the european union


<ul><li> 1. The Idea of Europe The creation of the European Union and the progressive integration of the European states have raised serious questions about the existence of a distinctive European identity. If there is something that distinguishes all Europeans, no matter their national or local differences, what is it, and how is it being changed by recent events? This book addresses these questions in essays that range from ancient Greece to the end of the twentieth century. They discuss matters of politics, law, religion, culture, literature, and even affectivity. In the massive literature of European integration, no other book takes such a long historical perspective, and none other deals directly with the question of identity. Anthony Pagden is a professor of history and political science at The Johns Hopkins University. He is the author of many books on the history of European social and political thought and of Europes links to the non-European world. </li> <li> 2. WOODROW WILSON CENTER SERIES Michael J. Lacey, editor, Religion and Twentieth-Century American Intellectual Life Michael J. Lacey, editor, The Truman Presidency Joseph Kruzel and Michael H. Haltzel, editors, Between the Blocs: Problems and Prospects for Europes Neutral and Nonaligned States William C. Brumeld, editor, Reshaping Russian Architecture: Western Technology, Utopian Dreams Mark N. Katz, editor, The USSR and Marxist Revolutions in the Third World Mary O. Furner and Barry Supple, editors, The State and Economic Knowledge: The American and British Experiences Michael J. Lacey and Knud Haakonssen, editors, A Culture of Rights: The Bill of Rights in Philosophy, Politics, and Law1791 and 1991 Robert J. Donovan and Ray Scherer, Unsilent Revolution: Television News and American Public Life, 19481991 William Craft Brumeld and Blair A. Ruble, editors, Russian Housing in the Modern Age: Design and Social History Nelson Lichtenstein and Howell John Harris, editors, Industrial Democracy in America: The Ambiguous Promise Michael J. Lacey and Mary O. Furner, editors, The State and Social Investigation in Britain and the United States Hugh Ragsdale, editor, Imperial Russian Foreign Policy Dermot Keogh and Michael H. Haltzel, editors, Northern Ireland and the Politics of Reconciliation Joseph Klaits and Michael H. Haltzel, editors, The Global Ramications of the French Revolution Rene Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conict and Genocide James R. Millar and Sharon L. Wolchik, editors, The Social Legacy of Communism James M. Morris, editor, On Mozart Blair A. Ruble, Money Sings: The Changing Politics of Urban Space in Post-Soviet Yaroslavl Continued on page following index </li> <li> 3. WOODROW WILSON INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR SCHOLARS Lee H. Hamilton, Director BOARD OF TRUSTEES Joseph A. Cari, Jr., Chair; Steven Alan Bennett, Vice Chair. Public Members: James H. Billington, Librarian of Congress; John W. Carlin, Archivist of the United States; William R. Ferris, Chair, National Endowment for the Humanities; Roderick R. Paige, U.S. Secretary of Education; Colin L. Powell, U.S. Secretary of State; Lawrence M. Small, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution; Tommy G. Thompson, U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Ser- vices. Private Citizen Members: Carol Cartwright, John H. Foster, Jean L. Hennessey, Daniel L. Lamaute, Doris O. Matsui, Thomas R. Reedy, Nancy M. Zirkin. WILSON COUNCIL Steven Kotler, President. B.B. Anderson, Charles S. Ackerman, Cyrus A. Ansary, Charles F. Barber, Lawrence E. Bathgate II, Joseph C. Bell, Richard E. Berkowitz, Thomas J. Buckholtz, Conrad Cafritz, Nicola L. Caiola, Raoul L. Carroll, Scott Carter, Albert V. Casey, Peter B. Clark, William T. Coleman, Jr., Michael D. DiGiacomo, Donald G. Drapkin, F. Samuel Eberts III, J. David Eller, Sim Farar, Susan R. Farber, Barbara Hackman Franklin, Morton Funger, Chris G. Gardiner, Eric Garnkel, Bruce S. Gelb, Alma Gildenhorn, Joseph B. Gildenhorn, David F. Girard-diCarlo, Michael B. Goldberg, William E. Grayson, Raymond A. Guenter, Verna R. Harrah, Carla A. Hills, Eric Hotung, Frances Humphrey Howard, John L. Howard, Darrell E. Issa, Jerry Jasinowski, Brenda LaGrange Johnson, Dennis D. Jorgensen, Shelly Kamins, Anastasia D. Kelly, Christopher J. Kennan, Michael V. Kostiw, William H. Kremer, Dennis LeVett, Harold O. Levy, David Link, David S. Mandel, John P. Manning, Edwin S. Marks, Jay Mazur, Robert McCarthy, C., Stephen G. McConahey, J. Kenneth Menges, Jr., Philip Merrill, Jeremiah L. Murphy, Martha T. Muse, Della M. Newman, Paul Hae Park, Gerald L. Parsky, Michael J. Polenske, Donald Robert Quartel, Jr., J. Steven Rhodes, John L. Richardson, Margaret Milner Richardson, Edwin Robbins, Philip E. Rollhaus, Otto Ruesch, B. Francis Saul III, Timothy R. Scully, J. Michael Shepherd, George P. Shultz, Raja W. Sidawi, Deborah Siebert, Thomas L. Siebert, Ron Silver, William A. Slaughter, Norma Kline Tiefel, Mark C. Treanor, Christine M. Warnke, Pete Wilson, Deborah Wince-Smith, Herbert S. Winokur, Jr., Joseph Zappala. ABOUT THE CENTER The Center is the living memorial of the United States of America to the nations twenty- eighth president, Woodrow Wilson. Congress established the Woodrow Wilson Center in 1968 as an international institute for advanced study, symbolizing and strengthening the fruitful relationship between the world of learning and the world of public affairs. The Center opened in 1970 under its own board of trustees. In all its activities the Woodrow Wilson Center is a nonprot, nonpartisan organization, supported nancially by annual appropriations from the Congress, and by the contributions of foundations, corporations, and individuals. Conclusions or opinions expressed in Center publications and programs are those of the authors and speakers and do not necessarily reect the views of the Center staff, fellows, trustees, advisory groups, or any individuals or organizations that provide nancial support to the Center. </li> <li> 4. The Idea of Europe From Antiquity to the European Union Edited by ANTHONY PAGDEN The Johns Hopkins University WOODROW WILSON CENTER PRESS AND </li> <li> 5. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, So Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge , United Kingdom First published in print format isbn-13 978-0-521-79171-7 hardback isbn-13 978-0-521-79552-4 paperback isbn-13 978-0-511-06723-5 eBook (NetLibrary) Woodrow Wilson Center 2002 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20004-3027 2002 Information on this title: This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. isbn-10 0-511-06723-2 eBook (NetLibrary) isbn-10 0-521-79171-5 hardback isbn-10 0-521-79552-4 paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of s for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this book, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York - - - - - - </li> <li> 6. For Felix and Sebastian, citizens of Europe Anthony Pagden </li> <li> 7. Contents Acknowledgments page xi Introduction 1 Anthony Pagden 1 Europe: Conceptualizing a Continent 33 Anthony Pagden 2 Some Europes in Their History 55 J. G. A. Pocock 3 Europe in the Middle Ages 72 William Chester Jordan 4 The Republican Mirror: The Dutch Idea of Europe 91 Hans W. Blom 5 The Napoleonic Empire and the Europe of Nations 116 Biancamaria Fontana 6 Homo Politicus and Homo Oeconomicus: The European Citizen According to Max Weber 129 Wilfried Nippel 7 The European Self: Rethinking an Attitude 139 Michael Herzfeld 8 European Nationalism and European Union 171 Ariane Chebel dAppollonia 9 From the Ironies of Identity to the Identities of Irony 191 Luisa Passerini ix </li> <li> 8. x Contents 10 Muslims and European Identity: Can Europe Represent Islam? 209 Talal Asad 11 The Long Road to Unity: The Contribution of Law to the Process of European Integration since 1945 228 Philip Ruttley 12 The Euro, Economic Federalism, and the Question of National Sovereignty 260 Elie Cohen 13 Identity Politics and European Integration: The Case of Germany 287 Thomas Risse and Daniela Engelmann-Martin 14 Nationalisms in Spain: The Organization of Convivencia 317 Andres de Blas Guerrero 15 The Kantian Idea of Europe: Critical and Cosmopolitan Perspectives 331 James Tully Contributors 359 Index 363 </li> <li> 9. Acknowledgments The idea for this book originated with an invitation from James Morris, at that time with the Woodrow Wilson Center, to present the rst in a series of public lectures on the idea of Europe. What have subsequently become the chapters by J. G. A. Pocock, James Tully, and Biancamaria Fontana all began as lectures in the same series. I would like to thank James Morris not only for this initiative but also for organizing and hosting a conference at the Center that brought together a number of the other contributors to discuss the future shape and direction of the volume. This was sponsored with the generous support of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the United States Federal Conference Fund. I owe a special debt of gratitude to Susan Nugent who has been a constant source of assistance in any number of ways during the long and often torturous period of the books gestation, to Joe Brinley for all his patience and encouragement, and to Patricia Katayama and Barbara de Boinville for their care in preparing the text for publication. Two anonymous readers for Cambridge University Press made a number of suggestions that have greatly helped to improve the volume. Finally, I would like to thank Jose Maria Hernandez for his friendship and for having reminded me of the presence of the smaller nations in Europe, and Giulia Sissa, another good European, who has inuenced greatly what I think on this, and many other topics, and who has saved me from innumerable errors. Anthony Pagden xi </li> <li> 10. Introduction ANTHONY PAGDEN Today, as the older territorial and national boundaries of the world be- come increasingly uncertain, the quest for national and transnational identity has intensied. This, as Talal Asad observes in chapter 10, is a fairly recent phenomenon, the product of the individuals social locations and psychological crises in an increasingly uncertain world. Previously, anxieties about identity tended to afict only states of relatively recent creationthe so-called new states in Africa and Asia in particular and areas of massive and diverse emigration such as the United States.1 The states that made up Europe, however, had supposedly been of such antiquity and undisputed cultural homogeneity that their members rarely troubled to ask themselves who they were.2 But the experience of two world wars, combined with ever-increasing migration for political, eco- nomic, or broadly cultural motives across the rapidly dissolving frontiers of Europe, have forced upon Europeans the uneasy sense that their self- condence in knowing just who they are is almost certainly unfounded. This volume traces from the ancient world to the present the deter- mining features of what might count as a collective idea of Europe as a political and cultural domain. This is not, of course, a linear history. No such history could be written. Our objective is rather to identify the concerns and convictions, the shifting discursive practices and the differ- ent languages, political, cultural, and economic, of which all identities are constituted. The contributors represent different disciplineshistory, anthropology, political science, the lawas they do different intellectual styles. Some (J. G. A. Pocock, Talal Asad, and James Tully in particular) 1 On identity in the new states, see Clifford Geertz, After the Revolution: The Fate of Nationalism in the New States, in The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 23454. 2 See Thomas Risse and Daniela Engelmann-Martins chapter in this volume. 1 </li> <li> 11. 2 ANTHONY PAGDEN look at Europe from beyond Europe, and their gaze is highly critical of both what Europe has been and what it is now becoming. Others (Ariane Chebel dAppollonia, Luisa Passerini, Thomas Risse and Daniela Engelmann-Martin, Biancamaria Fontana), while accepting the obvious burdens and contradictions of the European past, are cautiously hopeful about the possibilities of a new and happier European future. The volume offers no attempt to solve Europes current dilemmas. Its purpose is rather to add an historical voice to a conversation that has been going on within Europe and outside for several decades, a conversation that will shape a new, potentially exciting, potentially threatening, political, cultural, and social order. Most of us, whether we belong to Europe itself or (like some of the contributors to this volume) to other parts of the Western world, which Europe has played such an important role in shaping, will have to learn to live with this order. It is time we also came to understand it. For decades there has been within Western Europe an ever-insistent suspicion that the days of the nation-state are numbered. This, at least for the foreseeable future, is largely an illusion. Politically and institutionally the state remains the nal term of reference. As the general enthusiasm for the unication of Germany demonstrated, the state is still...</li></ul>


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